Friday, August 23, 2013

Possession During Sandal Procession at Dargahs

Possession During Sandal Procession at Dargahs

Sprinkling Holy Water On A Possessed Woman At Haji Malang

Marziya Shakir My First Grand Child ...

I Dont Want To Live This Long,,,

to this fucked world
no pun intended
i do not wish to
belong ,, where
people practice
evil do evil deeds
everything wrong
weak bullied
by the strong
women not safe
moving target
for any molester
rapist that comes
along ..brutalized
traumatized ..forever
lifelong ,,, oh god
above my life
please dont prolong
my flesh is weak
my mind fragile
my karma to suffer
not headstrong

Shooting Possession Occult Dua Tawiz ,,At Dargahs Of India

Knowledge of the supernatural is known as Ilm and holistic healing by the bawas or the malangs is done by dua tawiz what you call exorcism.

Every Dargah has its own method rituals , but the one that a lot of people head when their relative is taken over by such malady is Dargah of Syed Mira Datar Unjha ..I was there only for a few hours and documented some areas thanks to Khadim Saab Samad Miya , who was very helpful understanding and this part of healing exorcising is part of their ancestral family tradition..

Peersaab Fakhru Miya of Hujra No6 is an expert in this field at Ajmer Sharif , he does it on a paper which is burnt with the effigy of the devil and he reads the smoke and prescribes tawiz.

My Peer Syed Masoom Ali Madari Asqan , Dam Madar head is also very competent experienced in this field and has saved a lot of people from such maladies .. so also my Peer bhai Syed Rafiq Bawa Dam Madar Malang ,, both are held in the highest esteem in India malang circles.

The Naga Sadhus too have their tantric methods and in this regard I met Shee Kapoor Khamakhya at Allahabad Maha Kumbh , he is based in Hardwar and is a renowned Shaman and Exorcist ..devotee of Goddess Khamakhya of Khamakhya Temple Assam ,

My Naga Guru Shri Vijay Gri of Juna Akhada delves in Tantra too ,,

But there are a lot of people who play on the gullibility of the poor and the rich rake in fast bucks ..and give Occult a bad name ..

I am grateful to Hon Mr Nasim Khan Minister of Maharashtra for Textiles and Minorities who kept the Shia self infliction in the Memory of Imam Hussain during Moharam out of the ambit of the Anti - Superstition bill mentioned in the papers today..

The Possessed Person Takes On The Identity And Characteristic Of The Demon Within Her Soul

To the skeptic and the rational all this will sound nonsense mumbo jumbo but as a photographer I shot all this , the strange sounds that were not there own , the foul abuses in some cases and the challenge to the Holy Saint , to take them on , the moment the loban is lit and bought out from the Shrine to where these ladies are enacting their mental angst , the smoke cools them down , they become placid quiet like kids , and mind you it is not easy to shoot them this close at any moment they will leap and charge at you , so I took my chances it comes with the territory I shoot alone and recite Koranic verses when things get worse ...I have been lucky till date ,,,

This is my genre as a street and people photographer , some get cured healed some get locked up in institutions , and there is a human touch lacking in such cases , a Jesus like touch is the need of the hour ..but here it is very different the shaman beats the possessed person , burns her and in many cases bodily harms her is excuse being it is the devil within her that he is beating so the relatives parents or children keep quiet , I dont want to add sensationalism but you have read a lot of stories in the newspapers ..the shaman rape them and brutally assault their human dignity is all I need to say.. of course all this happens in closed quarters away from the eyes of the public and the relatives , in the city and worse in hick towns and rural areas ..

The anti superstition bill will bring down these atrocities but might be misused too by evil elements to get even with their competitors in the occult trade .. occult is a big booming trade and people in some cases have become god men and filthy rich..

I dont want to say much , but please read between the lines ,,,,

Possessed Lady At Haji Malang ,,,

Child Being Weighed on the Tolabar Haji Malang

When a couple ask for a child , as a wish from the Holy Saint of Haji Malang , and when it is fulfilled they bring the child to the Shrine , but before that they have him weighed and his weigh equivalent in jaggery or coconut is presented to the Dargah to be given to the poor ..

The ritual of weighing the child is called Tolabar ,, and the wish is called Mannat ..

Sandal Possession At Haji Malang Dargah

Normally whoever carries the Sandal on the head goes into a trance , or a state of hazri..

Possessed Women In Chain At Hussain Tekri Jaorah

We In Mumbai Gave The Finest Tribute To World Photography Day ,,,Mumbai Is Not Safe For Women Photographers

what were her
dreams ..
what were
her aspirations
i dont know
was she listening
to mr raghu rai
at world photography
day ..the changes
in the photography world
as it grows .. did she
imagine a few days
later she will be
brutalized a
moment froze
mumbai is no better
than delhi .. hai afsos
hai afsos .. going after
bar dancers was fine
but letting rapists
molesters lose
on the face of mumbai
adds to our woes
wake up dead soul
of governance ..
it was law and order
that was raped now
in repose ,rest in
peace amchi
mumbi..a bleeding rose

a hashtag on twitter
a picture a poem
thus exposed
the system has
taken a sleeping dose
cry my beloved city
some more ..

Possession Black Magic ,,The Tragedy Of The Uneducated Poor

Normally it is during the sandal , beating of the drums , the hypnotic sounds of the drums that the mentally inflicted person goes into a trance , shaking her open hair, spasms and a frenzy that will frighten you ,mostly the malangs cool the person or the loban smoke from the Holy Shrine.

At Haji Malang where I shot this series possession or hazri is prevalent but not as widespread as at Hussain Tekri Jaorah or Dargah Of Syed Mira Datar Gujrat .

There is a lot at Ajmer Sharif but as I could never enter with my camera I never shot it within.. referring to shoot on the streets or Sola Khamba.

The hijras also go into a very deep trance and this I have shot a lot including the rod piercing of a Hijra at Sion Koliwada during the Marriamman feast.

I know a lot of Hijra Bawas , the Moosa Suhagins ,Sada Suhagins that are masters of exorcism and black magic.This documentary is not for public view at all.

Haji Malang Dargah ...Loban Time Holistically Healing of Possessed People

Most of the possessed people inhale the smoke during loban time , this has a special holistic effect , their spasm ends , they cool down , and most of the possessed people you find a few yards away at Sultan Shah Babas Dargah , here women are hitting their heads against the walls , demonic screams , and here you find the bawas who do the healing .. or exorcism.

As the Khadim here is a friend Rohan Patl I witnessed a lot of possession cases , there was a possessed lady from Mahim who abused me publicly , she saw me shooting her picture , she used the most foul language cursed me and could not reach me I was on the top of a raised platform of the Holy Shrine or she would have killed me and smashed my camera , so as a photographer , you have to play by instincts dont trust anybody, never never never, just trust .. only yourself ,,I have had my camera stopped while shooting by a possessed guy I spent Rs 9000 to get it repaired .. and you wont ever believe this will you ..

Yes the genre I shoot is not easy it includes the Naga Sadhus at the Maha Kumbh , volatile angry camera hating creatures on two legs .. some of them This time I was lucky as I was with my Naga Guru of Junagadh Akhada .. and being a Muslim they respected me for showcasing the positive energy of their religion culture and ethos .. when I told them I was a Malang connected to Ajmer Sharif they became more respectful as the Sadhus hold Khwajah Garib Nawaz in great esteem.

This Guy Gets Possessed With The Spirit of a Lion at Haji Malang

Raju Kotwal from Ville Parle Mumbai gets the hazri of a lion, he walks on all fours showing the physical nature of a lion , he grunts roars he smells of a lion... he becomes normal once he enters the dargah chowk...

But the update is they say he was a fraud ,, I have shot him extensively walking behaving like a lion at the dargah.

The state of possession at dargahs is known as Hazri

Possession - And He Tells Me Shaney Photo Kyon Le Raha Hai

I have been bodily threatened , I was once thrown out on the streets while shooting a hijra ritual, I have shot the initiation of a hijra at Hijra Gully No 1 Kamatipura , pictures that I have removed from public view completely..

But I have shot possession , I have shot rituals that would scare you away , and superstition , black magic is the staple diet of the poor uneducated people but even the rich fall for it ,, get hooked so to speak, I have seen women young girls pressing the tantric babas legs serving him like god , they dont even serve their parents or husbands as they serve these god men.. they surrender everything to him...

As a Malang belonging to a Sufi Order I have seen a lot on my travels , dua taweex is big business , exorcism and demonic cleansing.. even political leaders babus are part of the promotion of this evil system..

Demonic Possession Is Common In India - But It Is The Evil Exorcists Crooked Bawas And Charlatans That Are Dangerous

My genre is shooting pain , natural supernatural and during the Urus of a Holy Saint these scones are very common , at most shrines they restrict photography of these women.. I have been lucky and shot at almost every Shrine .

The pain that the possessed undergoes is not as great as the sufferings of his or her family members and I know there are insensitive people who bring their relatives to the Shrine and leave them to fend for themselves and depart.

Dargahs are easy place for holistic healing without visiting a mental doctor or institution , taking a relative to a mental institution is a taboo too..

I have found that Hussain Tekri Jaorah MP near Ratlam and Dargah of Syed Mira Datar at Unjha Unnava Gujrat two main important centers of mental disturbed and possessed .people...

There are a lot of people who fleece the gullible victims and the anti superstition bill will be a step in the right direction and save further misery of the afflicted people , there is so much fraud I have seen witnessed even at the Maha Kumbh that it shocks me , evil exists in every human soul .. and there are evil folks in all religion communities waiting to make a fast buck , the tantric bangali babas and shamans ..

The Hazri - The Possessed At Haji Malang

Indians Have An Inborn Sense Of Humor.. We Are Born Stand Up Artists ,, Always Stands Up And Gets Noticed

Extreme Possession of Mind Soul and Body - Hazri

Extreme Possession of Mind Soul and Body - Hazri

The Possessed at Haji Malang Dargah

Supernatural possession[edit source | editbeta]

Demonic possession, psychokinetic control of a person by the Devil or other malevolent spirit
Spirit possession, psychokinetic control of the behavior of a living thing or natural object by a spiritual being

Law And Order Gang Raped .. At Lower Parel.. The Camera Cries ,.. The Moment Wails ,,

are women safe
in mumbai
from aggressive
drug addicts
sex maniacs
who should
be in jails
repeat of
murky tale
photo journalist
gang raped
a system failed
hue and cry
twitter protests
someone will
be nailed
than another
rape another
rape ..depths
we have fallen
heights we
have scaled
our beloved
mumbai too
has been
raped by
people in
high places
our leaders
caught in
a rat race '
god save
the mother
the daughter
the sister
god save
all females
we cannot
guard them
as we build
useless skywalks
useless roads
useless infrastructure
mono rails ,,
we are governed
by extortion

aye adaa aur sunaaye bhi to kya haal apna umr ka lamba safar tay kiya tanha humne

justaju jiski thi usko to na paya humne
is bahaane se magar dekh li duniya humne
justaju jiski thi...

Chicken Tanduri Chicken Lolipops .. Chicken Biryani.. Let Them Live

justaju jiski thi usko to na paya humne -is bahaane se magar dekh li duniya humne

kab mili thi kahaan bichhadi thi aa aa
kab mili thi kahaan bichhadi thi hume yaad nahin
zindagi tujko to
bas khwaab mein dekha humne

“A picture is a secret about a secret, the more it tells you the less you know.” ― Diane Arbus

He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.

Jesus and the woman taken in adultery

The Pericope Adulterae /pəˈrɪkəpiː əˈdʌltəriː/[1] or Pericope de Adultera is a traditional name for a famous passage (pericope) about Jesus and the woman taken in adultery from verses 7:53-8:11 of the Gospel of John. The passage describes a confrontation between Jesus and the scribes and Pharisees over whether a woman, caught in an act of adultery, ought to be stoned. Jesus shames the crowd into dispersing, and averts the execution.
Although in line with many stories in the Gospels and probably primitive (Didascalia Apostolorum refers to it, possibly Papias also), certain critics[2][3] argue that it was "certainly not part of the original text of St John's Gospel."[4] On the other hand, the Council of Trent declared that the Latin Vulgate was authentic and authoritative.[5] The Latin Vulgate includes the adultery episode in John 7:53-8:11.
The parable, and its messages of not being quick to condemn when one is not blameless and tempering justice with mercy, have endured in Christian thought. Both "let him who is without sin, cast the first stone"[6] and "go, and sin no more"[7] have found their way into common usage. The English idiomatic phrase to "cast the first stone" is derived from this passage.[8] The passage has been taken as confirmation of Jesus' ability to write (as opposed to read—in early societies many more people could read than write), otherwise only suggested by implication in the Gospels, but the word "εγραφεν" in 8:8 could mean "draw" as well as "write".[9]
The subject of Jesus' writing on the ground was fairly common in art, especially from the Renaissance onwards; Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery by Pieter Bruegel is a famous example. There was a medieval tradition, originating in a comment attributed to Ambrose, that the words written were terra terram accusat ("earth accuses earth"), which is shown in some depictions in art, for example the Codex Egberti. Christian singer Ray Boltz's song "The Stones" tells about this biblical event. There have also been other speculative suggestions as to what was written.[10]

John 7:53-8:11 in the Authorized Version:
7:53 And every man went unto his own house.
8:1 Jesus went unto the mount of Olives.
8:2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them.
8:3 And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst,
8:4 They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act.
8:5 Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned: but what sayest thou?
8:6 This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not.
8:7 So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.
8:8 And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground.
8:9 And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
8:10 When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?
8:11 She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more.
Textual history[edit source | editbeta]

John 7:52–8:12 in Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 (c. 350 AD): lines 1&2 end 7:52; lines 3&4 start 8:12.
The pericope is not found in any place in any of the earliest surviving Greek Gospel manuscripts; neither in the two 3rd century papyrus witnesses to John - P66 and P75; nor in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, although all four of these manuscripts may acknowledge the existence of the passage via diacritical marks at the spot. The first surviving Greek manuscript to contain the pericope is the Latin/Greek diglot Codex Bezae of the late 4th or early 5th century. It is also the earliest surviving Latin manuscript to contain it; 17 of the 23 Old Latin manuscripts of John 7-8 contain at least part of the Pericope. Papias (circa AD 125) refers to a story of Jesus and a woman "accused of many sins" as being found in the Gospel of the Hebrews, which may well refer to this passage; there is a very certain quotation of the pericope adulterae in the 3rd Century Syriac Didascalia Apostolorum; though without indicating John's Gospel. The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles Book II.24 refers to the passage “And when the elders had set another woman who had sinned before Him, and had left the sentence to Him, and were gone out, our Lord, the Searcher of the hearts, inquiring of her whether the elders had condemned her, and being answered No, He said unto her: “Go thy way therefore, for neither do I condemn thee.” Book II is generally dated to the late third century (Von Drey, Krabbe, Bunsen, Funk).[11] Codex Fuldensis, which is positively dated to AD 546 contains the adulterae pericope. The Second Epistle of Pope Callistus section 6[12] contains a quote that may be from John 8:11 - "Let him see to it that he sin no more, that the sentence of the Gospel may abide in him: “Go, and sin no more.”" However the epistle quotes from eighth century writings and is not thought to be genuine.[13]
Until recently, it was not thought that any Greek Church Father had taken note of the passage before the 12th Century; but in 1941 a large collection of the writings of Didymus the Blind (ca. 313- 398) was discovered in Egypt, including a reference to the pericope adulterae as being found in "several copies"; and it is now considered established that this passage was present in its usual place in some Greek manuscripts known in Alexandria and elsewhere from the 4th Century onwards. In support of this it is noted that the 4th century Codex Vaticanus, which was written in Egypt, marks the end of John chapter 7 with an "umlaut", indicating that an alternative reading was known at this point.
Jerome reports that the pericope adulterae was to be found in its usual place in "many Greek and Latin manuscripts" in Rome and the Latin West in the late 4th Century. This is confirmed by some Latin Fathers of the 4th and 5th Centuries CE; including Ambrose, and Augustine. The latter claimed that the passage may have been improperly excluded from some manuscripts in order to avoid the impression that Christ had sanctioned adultery:
"Certain persons of little faith, or rather enemies of the true faith, fearing, I suppose, lest their wives should be given impunity in sinning, removed from their manuscripts the Lord's act of forgiveness toward the adulteress, as if he who had said, Sin no more, had granted permission to sin."[14]


The Palkiwalas of Haji Malang

The Palkiwalas of Haji Malang

The Palki Carriers of Haji Malang

The people who availed of their services are the rich, the devout who must reach Haji Malang Holy Shrine come what may, and they pay a fortune for this human tough service , in thousands but I know poor old folks who take two days to reach up, it is a tough climb.. beggars with deformed legs , with crutches , but fuck who thinks about them , the big fat rich hijra ladies use this service , the hijra gurus with varicose veins use this service from the foothills of Malangad mountains to the top.

Little kids with their parents toddlers crawlers all walk up, or carried by their parents , even sons carry their old parents on their backs ,, and this is a Indian thing and tradition..and both Hindus and Muslims come here including other communities , this is untapped virginal land totally neglected by our erstwhile government , it could have been famous but it is in dispute and sub judice I think..the righ wing Hindus have laid claim over it and earlier there used to be clashes on the first day but now its under control both communities show restrain..the cops do a great job including the community leaders and local administration.. I dont delve on this issue I come for Malang Baba and recently I became a Dam Madar Malang too, and this is Malang pilgrimage ..the other one being the Holy Shrine of Zinda Shah Madar Makanpur head seat of the Malangs of India.

The Malangs are Sufi austere monks are a fascinating community , long dread heads black clothes , here at Haji Malangs the turban is saffron and the Malangs are mostly from Gulbarga Karnataka.

Lifes Journey Never Ends ..

285103 images I shot and why I shot , what I shot beats me  I just shot impulsively , I did not compose , I just aligned my camera to my cosmic eye and let it do the rest .. people I shot I hardly saw them again..specially at Haji Malang a Holy Sufi Shrine perched on a mountain top, no motorable road , you have to walk up, I walk up barefeet...

I met interesting people , crazy camera hating people but it did not deter me I shot what I thought I had to shoot ..I did not shoot to sell images , I did not shoot to make a coffee table book, never shot with a motive or an agenda I shot because I was destined to shoot what was destined to be shot by me.

It may sound crazy it was Moharam time 2004 0r 2005 I had scourged my back and I came to Haji Malang invited by the head of the Chancawalli Rafaees , Sikandar Wali Shah Baba it was it to give a few prints I  met him stayed for a day ,it was here I accidentally met the Hijras and thus began several trips to the top during Urus time..

Shooting pictures became a passion , became a soothing balm, and a diversion from my chronic.alcoholism, I gave up drinking and it seems an age ..never ever touched booze , gave up the chillum too..never had any  yearning once I gave up these major vices , they  died .. I used to smoke cigarettes Four Square gave that up too,,,the Internet made me give up reading writing and my long walks at Carter I type my thoughts my poems with a single finger ...

And thus I became a blogger , irrevocably I can not call myself a photographer though I am a street photographer .. my pictures are street based shot in the open I hate captive spaces I am alien to studio lights.. I use the single light of the sun and clouds as reflectors .

The Internet gave me hope a direction but no money, I pay for my internet time , and I pay for the service that provides me this getaway , I now use Brians Channel 3 have yet to pay MTNL Broadband for 2 months though I have not availed of their services ..

Life is grim , dark gloomy like the seasons of some rain no shine ,, but it could not be worse ..partial sleep ,waking up to kill bed bugs that have infiltrated my wooden bed ..I murder them they come back to suck my sweet blood.. pest control is no help at all..

Haji Malang Dargah

186,253 items / 1,467,357 views

3. Haji Malang (Thane) Haji Malang, is a 300 year old dargah at Kalyan, in Mumbai, where Baba Abdur Rehman Malang has been buried. Malang was a Sufi saint who came to India in the 12th century AD from the middle east. Haji Malang, in true syncretic tradition, was one of the few dargahs where a Hindu vahivatdar (traditional priest from the Hindu Karandekar family) and a Muslim mutavalli (claiming to be distant kin of the saint), had both been officiating at religious rituals.

Albinism,,, Haji Malang Beggars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. While an organism with complete absence of melanin is called an albino (US /ælˈbaɪnoʊ/,[1] or UK /ælˈbiːnoʊ/)[2] an organism with only a diminished amount of melanin is described as albinoid.[3]
Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus and astigmatism. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.[4]

In humans, there are two principal types of albinism, oculocutaneous, affecting the eyes, skin and hair, and ocular affecting the eyes only.
Most oculocutaenous albinistic humans appear white or very pale as the melanin pigments responsible for brown, black, and some yellow colorations are not present. Ocular albinism results in pale blue eyes, and may require genetic testing to diagnose.
Because individuals with albinism have skin that entirely lacks the dark pigment melanin, which helps protect the skin from the sun's ultraviolet radiation, their skin can burn more easily from overexposure.[5]
The human eye normally produces enough pigment to color the iris blue, green or brown and lend opacity to the eye. However, there are cases in which the eyes of an albinistic person appear red, pink or purple, depending on the amount of pigment present, due to the red of retina being visible through the iris. Lack of pigment in the eyes also results in problems with vision, both related and unrelated to photosensitivity.
The albinistic are generally as healthy as the rest of the population (but see related disorders below), with growth and development occurring as normal, and albinism by itself does not cause mortality,[6] although the lack of pigment blocking ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancer and other problems.
Visual problems[edit source | editbeta]

Malian singer Salif Keita
Development of the optical system is highly dependent on the presence of melanin, and the reduction or absence of this pigment in albinistic individuals may lead to
Misrouting of the retinogeniculate projections, resulting in abnormal decussation (crossing) of optic nerve fibres[5]
Photophobia and decreased visual acuity due to light scattering within the eye (ocular straylight)[5][7]
Reduced visual acuity due to foveal hypoplasia and possibly light-induced retinal damage[5]
Eye conditions common in albinism include:
Nystagmus, irregular rapid movement of the eyes back and forth, or in circular motion.[5]
Astigmatism, irregular shaped cornea requiring additional cylindrical corrective lenses in spectacles.[8]
Amblyopia, decrease in acuity of one or both eyes due to poor transmission to the brain, often due to other conditions such as strabismus.[5]
Optic nerve hypoplasia, underdevelopment of the optic nerve
Some of the visual problems associated with albinism arise from a poorly developed retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to the lack of melanin.[citation needed] This degenerate RPE causes foveal hypoplasia (a failure in the development of normal foveae), which results in eccentric fixation and lower visual acuity, and often a minor level of strabismus.
The iris is a sphincter formed from pigmented tissue that contracts when the eye is exposed to bright light, to protect the retina by limiting the amount of light passing through the pupil. In low light conditions the iris relaxes to allow more light to enter the eye. In albinistic subjects, the iris does not have enough pigment to block the light, thus the decrease in pupil diameter is only partially successful in reducing the amount of light entering the eye.[citation needed] Additionally, the improper development of the RPE, which in normal eyes absorbs most of the reflected sunlight, further increases glare due to light scattering within the eye.[9] The resulting sensitivity (photophobia) generally leads to discomfort in bright light, but this can be reduced by the use of sunglasses and/or brimmed hats.[10]
Genetics[edit source | editbeta]

Most forms of albinism are the result of the biological inheritance of genetically recessive alleles (genes) passed from both parents of an individual, though some rare forms are inherited from only one parent. There are other genetic mutations which are proven to be associated with albinism. All alterations, however, lead to changes in melanin production in the body.[6][11]
The chance of offspring with albinism resulting from the pairing of an organism with albinism and one without albinism is low. However, because organisms can be carriers of genes for albinism without exhibiting any traits, albinistic offspring can be produced by two non-albinistic parents. Albinism usually occurs with equal frequency in both sexes.[6] An exception to this is ocular albinism, which it is passed on to offspring through X-linked inheritance. Thus, ocular albinism occurs more frequently in males as they have a single X and Y chromosome, unlike females, whose genetics are characterized by two X chromosomes.[12]
There are two different forms of albinism: a partial lack of the melanin is known as hypomelanism, or hypomelanosis and the total absence of melanin is known as amelanism or amelanosis.
Diagnosis[edit source | editbeta]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2007)
Genetic testing can confirm albinism and what variety it is, but offers no medical benefits except in the cases of non-OCA disorders (see below) that cause albinism along with other medical problems which may be treatable. The symptoms of albinism can be treated by various methods detailed below.
Treatment[edit source | editbeta]

For the most part, treatment of the eye conditions consists of visual rehabilitation. Surgery is possible on the ocular muscles to decrease nystagmus, strabismus and common refractive errors like astigmatism.[5] Nystagmus-damping surgery can also be performed, to reduce the "shaking" of the eyes back and forth.[13] The effectiveness of all these procedures varies greatly and depends on individual circumstances.
Glasses and other vision aids, large-print materials as well as bright but angled reading lights, can help individuals with albinism, even though their vision cannot be corrected completely. Some people with albinism do well using bifocals (with a strong reading lens), prescription reading glasses, and/or hand-held devices such as magnifiers or monoculars.[10] Contact lenses may be colored to block light transmission through the iris. But in the case of nystagmus this is not possible, due to the irritation that is caused by the movement of the eyes. Some use bioptics, glasses which have small telescopes mounted on, in, or behind their regular lenses, so that they can look through either the regular lens or the telescope. Newer designs of bioptics use smaller light-weight lenses. Some US states allow the use of bioptic telescopes for driving motor vehicles. (See also NOAH bulletin "Low Vision Aids".)
Epidemiology[edit source | editbeta]
Albinism affects people of all ethnic backgrounds; its frequency worldwide is estimated to be approximately one in 17,000. Prevalence of the different forms of albinism varies considerably by population, and is highest overall in people of sub-Saharan African descent.[14]
Society and culture[edit source | editbeta]

Main articles: Persecution of people with albinism and Albinism in popular culture
In physical terms, humans with albinism commonly have visual problems and need sun protection. They often face social and cultural challenges (even threats), as the condition is often a source of ridicule, discrimination, or even fear and violence. Many cultures around the world have developed beliefs regarding people with albinism.
In African countries such as Tanzania[15] and Burundi,[16][17] there has been an unprecedented rise in witchcraft-related killings of albino people in recent years, because their body parts are used in potions sold by witchdoctors. Numerous authenticated incidents have occurred in Africa during the 21st Century.[18][19][20][21] For example, in Tanzania, in September 2009, three men were convicted of killing a 14-year-old albino boy and severing his legs in order to sell them for witchcraft purposes.[22] Again in Tanzania and Burundi in 2010, the murder and dismemberment of a kidnapped albino child was reported from the courts,[16] as part of a continuing problem. National Geographic estimates that in Tanzania a complete set of albino body parts is worth $75,000.[1]
Another harmful and false belief is that sex with an albinistic woman will cure a man of HIV. This has led, for example in Zimbabwe, to rapes (and subsequent HIV infection).[23]
Certain ethnic groups and insular areas exhibit heightened susceptibility to albinism, presumably due to genetic factors. These include notably the Native American Kuna and Zuni nations (respectively of Panama and New Mexico); Japan, in which one particular form of albinism is unusually common; and Ukerewe Island, the population of which shows a very high incidence of albinism.[24]
Famous people with albinism include historical figures such as Oxford don William Archibald Spooner; actor-comedian Victor Varnado; musicians such as Johnny and Edgar Winter, Salif Keita, Winston "Yellowman" Foster, Brother Ali, Sivuca, Willie "Piano Red" Perryman; and fashion models Connie Chiu and Shaun Ross. Emperor Seinei of Japan is thought to have been an albino because he was said to have been born with white hair.
In animals[edit source | editbeta]

Many animals with albinism lack their protective camouflage and are unable to conceal themselves from their predators or prey; the survival rate of animals with albinism in the wild is usually quite low.[25][26] However the novelty of albino animals has occasionally led to their protection by groups such as the Albino Squirrel Preservation Society.
In what used to be called "partial albinism" but is more often termed leucism there can be a single patch or patches of skin that lack melanin. Especially in albinistic birds and reptiles, ruddy and yellow hues or other colors may be present on the entire body or in patches (as is common among pigeons), because of the presence of other pigments unaffected by albinism such as porphyrins, pteridines and psittacins, as well as carotenoid pigments derived from the diet.
Intentionally bred albinistic strains of some animal species are commonly used as model organisms in biomedical study and experimentation, although some researchers have argued that they are not always the best choice.[27] Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, while albino rabbits were historically used for Draize toxicity testing.[28] The yellow mutation in fruit flies is their version of albinism.
The incidence of albinism can be artificially increased in fish by exposing the eggs to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, selenium, zinc).[29]
The eyes of an albino animal appear red because the colour of the red blood cells in the underlying retinal blood vessels shows through where there is no pigment to obscure it.
Famous albino animals include Migaloo, a humpback whale off the coast of Australia; Pinky, a bottlenose dolphin living in and around in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana; Snowflake, a Barcelona Zoo gorilla; Snowflake, a Bristol Zoo penguin; and Mahpiya Ska (Sioux for "White Cloud"), a buffalo in Jamestown, North Dakota.[30] The inspiration for Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick was a sperm whale known as Mocha Dick.