Bloggers Show You Today What Is Going To Happen Tomorrow, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
Wednesday, November 7, 2012
Bloggers Show You Today What Is Going To Happen Tomorrow, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
we bleed to prove a point that barbarism exists in islam.. under the layer of peace and brotherhood, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
236,968 items / 1,987,973 views
ali in a mosque
main ilm ka shaer hoon
ali ilm ka darwaza hai
a thought of the holy one
far too good than they
killed his favorite grandson
at karbala the eunuchs
of yazid stood their like wood
today history repeats
itself muslims love killing
muslims plunder destroy
peace and brotherhood
the missing healing touch
as the poor muslim begs
does no good
יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא מְבָרַךְ לְעָלַם וּלְעָלְמֵי עָלְמַיָּא (Yehei shmëh rabba mevarakh lealam ulalmey almaya, "May His great name be blessed for ever, and to all eternity"),
Bereavement in Judaism (Hebrew: אֲבֵלוּת, aveilut ; mourning) is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. The details of observance and practice vary according to each Jewish community.
1 Upon receiving news of the passing
2 Chevra kadisha
2.1 Preparing the body — Taharah
3 Funeral service
5.1 Keriah and Shiva
5.2 Commencing and calculating the seven days of mourning
6 Stages of mourning
6.2.1 Shiva – Seven days
6.2.2 Shloshim – Thirty days
6.2.3 Shneim asar chodesh – Twelve months
7 Matzevah (Unveiling of the tombstone)
8 Annual remembrances
8.1 Yahrtzeit, Nahala
8.2 Visiting the gravesite
9 Memorial through prayer
9.1 Mourner's Kaddish
9.3 Av HaRachamim
10 Communal responses to death
10.1 Zihui Korbanot Asson (ZAKA)
10.2 Hebrew Free Burial Association (HFBA)
10.3 Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los Angeles
11 Controversy following death
11.1 Donating organs
11.2 Jewish view of cremation
11.5 Death of an apostate Jew
12 After death in Judaism
13 Days of remembrance
Upon receiving the news of the passing, the following blessing is recited:
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולם, דיין האמת.
Transliteration: Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha'olam, dayan ha-emet.
Translation: "Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the universe, the True Judge."
There is also a custom of rending one's clothes at the moment one hears news of a passing.
Orthodox men will cut the lapel of their suit on the left  side, over the heart. Non-orthodox practice may be to cut a necktie or to wear a button with a torn black ribbon.
Main article: Chevra kadisha
The chevra kadisha (חברה קדישא "holy group") is a Jewish burial society usually consisting of volunteers, men and women, who prepare the deceased for proper Jewish burial. Their job is to ensure that the body of the deceased is shown proper respect, ritually cleansed and shrouded.
Many local chevra kadishas in urban areas are affiliated with local synagogues, and they often own their own burial plots in various local cemeteries. Some Jews pay an annual token membership fee to the chevra kadisha of their choice, so that when the time comes, the society will not only attend to the body of the deceased as befits Jewish law, but will also ensure burial in a plot that it controls at an appropriate nearby Jewish cemetery.
If no gravediggers are available, then it is additionally the function of the male society members to ensure that graves are dug. In Israel, members of chevra kadishas consider it an honor to not only prepare the body for burial but also to dig the grave for a fellow Jew's body, particularly if the deceased was known to be a righteous person.
Many burial societies hold one or two annual fast days and organize regular study sessions to remain up to date with the relevant articles of Jewish law. In addition, most burial societies also support families during the shiva (traditional week of mourning) by arranging prayer services, preparing meals, and providing other services for the mourners.
Preparing the body — Taharah
There are three major stages to preparing the body for burial: washing (rechitzah), ritual purification (taharah), and dressing (halbashah). The term taharah is used to refer both to the overall process of burial preparation, and to the specific step of ritual purification.
Prayers and readings from Torah, including Psalms, Song of Songs, Isaiah, Ezekial and Zecharia are recited.
The general sequence of steps for performing taharah is as follows.
The body (guf) is uncovered (it has been covered with a sheet awaiting taharah).
The body is washed carefully. Any bleeding is stopped and all blood is buried along with the deceased. The body is thoroughly cleaned of dirt, body fluids, and solids, and anything else that may be on the skin. All jewelry is removed.
The body is purified with water, either by immersion in a mikveh or by pouring a continuous stream of 9 kavim (usually 3 buckets) in a prescribed manner.
The body is dried (according to most customs).
The body is dressed in traditional burial clothing (tachrichim). A sash (avnet) is wrapped around the clothing and tied in the form of the Hebrew letter "shin," representing one of the names of God.
The casket (aron) (if there is one) is prepared by removing any linings or other embellishments. A winding sheet (sovev) is laid into the casket. Outside the Land of Israel, if the deceased wore a prayer shawl (tallit) during their life, one is laid in the casket for wrapping the body once it is placed therein. One of the corner fringes (tzitzit) is removed from the shawl to signify that it will no longer be used for prayer that the person is absolved from having to keep any of the mitzvot (commandments).
The body is then lifted into the casket and wrapped in the prayer shawl and sheet. Soil from Israel (afar), if available, is placed over various parts of the body and sprinkled in the casket.
The casket is closed.
Once the casket is closed, the chevra then asks for forgiveness from the deceased for anything that they may have done to disrespect or offend them during the taharah.
There is no viewing of the body and no open casket at the funeral. Sometimes the immediate family pays their final respects before the funeral. In Israel caskets are not used at all, with the exception of military and state funerals. The body is carried to the grave wrapped in a tallit.
From death until burial, it is traditional for guards or watchers (shomrim) to stay with the deceased. It is traditional to recite Psalms during this time.
The Jewish funeral consists of a burial, also known as an interment. Cremation is completely not acceptable. Burial is then considered to allow the body to decompose naturally, therefore embalming is forbidden. Burial is intended to take place in as short an interval of time after death as possible. Displaying of the body prior to burial does not take place. Flowers are not found at a traditional Jewish funeral.
In Israel, the Jewish funeral service usually commences at the burial ground. In the United States and Canada, the funeral service commences either at a funeral home or at the cemetery. Occasionally the service will commence at a synagogue. In the case of a very prominent individual, the funeral service can begin at a synagogue or a yeshivah. If the funeral service begins at a point other than at the cemetery, the entourage accompanies the body in a procession to the cemetery. The funeral itself, the procession accompanying the body to the place of burial, and the burial, are referred to by the word levayah, meaning "escorting." Levayah also indicates "joining" and "bonding." This aspect of the meaning of levayah conveys the implication of a commonality in the middle of the souls of the living and the dead.
A hesped is a eulogy, and it is common for several people to speak at the start of the ceremony at the funeral home, as well as prior to burial at the gravesite, though some people specify in their wills that nothing should be said about them. On certain days, such as on Chol HaMo'ed ("intermediate days" of Jewish holidays), eulogies are forbidden.
Kevura, or burial, should take place as soon as possible after death. The Torah requires burial as soon as possible, even for executed criminals. Burial is delayed "for the honor of the deceased," usually to allow more time for far-flung family to come to the funeral and participate in the other post-burial rituals, but also to hire professionals, or to bury the deceased in a cemetery of their choice.
This traditional practice may have originated from the fact that Israel was, and is, a country with a hot climate. In Biblical times, there were few ways of keeping the dead body from decomposing. Not only would this be generally undesirable, but allowing the dead body of any person to decompose would be showing that person great disrespect. Thus, it became customary to bury the body as soon as possible. In addition, respect for the dead can be seen from many examples in the Torah and Tanakh. For example, one of the last events in the Torah is the death of Moses when God himself buries him: "[God] buried him in the depression in the land of Moab, opposite Beth Peor. No man knows the place that he was buried, even to this day." 
When the funeral service has ended, the mourners come forward to fill the grave. Symbolically, this gives the mourners closure as they observe the grave being filled in. One custom is for people present at the funeral to take a spade or shovel, held pointing down instead of up, to show the antithesis of death to life and that this use of the shovel is different from all other uses, to throw three shovelfuls of dirt into the grave. When someone is finished, they put the shovel back in the ground, rather than handing it to the next person, to avoid passing along their grief to other mourners. This literal participation in the burial is considered a particularly good mitzvah because it is one for which the beneficiary — the deceased — can offer no repayment or gratitude and thus it is a pure gesture.
Keriah and Shiva
Main article: Shiva (Judaism)
The mourners traditionally make a tear (keriah קריעה) in an outer garment either before the funeral or immediately after it. The tear should be on the left side for a parent (over the heart and clearly visible) and on the right side for siblings (including half-brothers and half-sisters), children, and spouses (and does not need to be visible).
Halachos concerning mourning do not apply to those under 13 years of age. Also, halachos of mourning do not apply when the deceased is aged 30 days or less.
In the instance when a mourner receives the news of the death and burial of a relative after an elapsed period of 30 days or more, there is no keriah, or tearing of the garment, except in the case of a parent. In the case of a parent, the tearing of the garment is to be performed no matter how long a period has elapsed between the time of death and the time of receiving the news.
If a child of the deceased needs to change clothes during the shiva period, s/he must tear the changed clothes. No other family member is required to rend changed clothes during shiva. Children of the deceased may never sew the rent clothes, but any other mourner may mend the clothing 30 days after the burial.
When they get home, the mourners refrain for a week from showering or bathing, wearing leather shoes or jewelry, or shaving. In many communities, mirrors in the mourners' home are covered since they should not be concerned about their personal appearance. It is customary for the mourners to sit on low stools or even the floor, symbolic of the emotional reality of being "brought low" by the grief. The meal of consolation (seudat havra'ah), the first meal eaten on returning from the funeral, traditionally consists of hard-boiled eggs and other round or oblong foods. This is often credited to the Biblical story of Jacob purchasing the birthright from Esau with stewed lentils (Genesis 25:34); it is traditionally stated that Jacob was cooking the lentils soon after the death of his grandfather Abraham. During this seven-day period, family and friends come to visit or call on the mourners to comfort them ("shiva calls").
Commencing and calculating the seven days of mourning
If the mourner returns from the cemetery after the burial before sundown, then the day of the funeral is counted as the first of the seven days of mourning. Mourning generally concludes in the morning of the seventh day. No mourning may occur on Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath), nor may the burial take place on Shabbat, but the day of Shabbat does count as one of the seven days. If a Jewish holiday occurs after the first day, that curtails the mourning period. If the funeral occurs during a festival, the start of the mourning period awaits the end of the festival. Some holidays, such as Rosh Hashanah, cancel the mourning period completely.
Stages of mourning
The first stage of mourning is aninut, or "intense mourning." An onen (a person in aninut) is considered to be in a state of total shock and disorientation. Thus the onen is exempt from performing mitzvot that require action (and attention), such as praying and reciting blessings, wearing tefillin (phylacteries), in order to be able to tend unhindered to the funeral arrangements. However the onen is still obligated in commandments that forbid an action (such as not violating the Shabbat).
Aninut lasts until the burial is over, or, if a mourner is unable to attend the funeral, from the moment he is no longer involved with the funeral itself.
Aninut is immediately followed by avelut ("mourning"). An avel ("mourner") does not listen to music or go to concerts, and does not attend any joyous events or parties such as marriages or Bar or Bat Mitzvahs, unless absolutely necessary. (If the date for such an event has already been set prior to the death, it is strictly forbidden for it to be postponed or canceled.)
Avelut consists of three distinct periods.
Shiva – Seven days
Main article: Shiva (Judaism)
The first stage of avelut is shiva (Hebrew: שבעה ; "seven"), a week-long period of grief and mourning. Observance of shiva is referred to by English-speaking Jews as "sitting shiva". During this period, mourners traditionally gather in one home and receive visitors.
It is considered a great mitzvah (commandment) of kindness and compassion to pay a home visit to the mourners. Traditionally, no greetings are exchanged and visitors wait for the mourners to initiate conversation. The mourner is under no obligation to engage in conversation and may, in fact, completely ignore his/her visitors.
Visitors will traditionally take on the hosting role when attending a Shiva, often bringing food and serving it to the mourning family and other guests. The mourning family will often avoid any cooking or cleaning during the Shiva period; those responsibilities become those of visitors.
There are various customs as to what to say when taking leave of the mourner(s). One of the most common is to say to them:
הַמָּקוֹם יְנַחֵם אֶתְכֶם בְּתוֹךְ שְׁאָר אֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן וִירוּשָׁלָיִם
Hamakom y'nachem etkhem b'tokh sha'ar avelei tziyon viyrushalayim:
"The Omnipresent will comfort you (pl.) among the mourners of Zion and Jerusalem"
Depending on their community's customs, others may also add such wishes as: "You should have no more tza'ar (distress)" or "You should have only simchas (celebrations)" or "we should hear only besorot tovot (good tidings) from each other" or "I wish you a long life".
Traditionally, prayer services are organized in the house of mourning. It is customary for the family to lead the services themselves.
Shloshim – Thirty days
The thirty-day period following burial (including shiva) is known as shloshim (Hebrew: שלושים ; "thirty"). During shloshim, a mourner is forbidden to marry or to attend a seudat mitzvah (religious festive meal). Men do not shave or get haircuts during this time.
Since Judaism teaches that a deceased person can still benefit from the merit of mitzvot (commandments) performed in their memory, it is considered a special privilege to bring merit to the departed by learning Torah in their name. A popular custom is to coordinate a group of people who will jointly study the complete Mishnah during the shloshim period. This is due to the fact that "Mishnah" (משנה) and "Neshamah" (נשמה), soul, have the same (Hebrew) letters. There are even organizations, such as ElevateTheNeshamah.com, which have been formed to assist those who are unable to learn the entire Mishnah. These organizations arrange for talmidei chachamim, Torah scholars, to study the Mishnah in honor of the deceased.
Shneim asar chodesh – Twelve months
Those mourning a parent additionally observe a twelve-month period (Hebrew: שנים עשר חודש, shneim asar chodesh ; "twelve months"), counted from the day of death. During this period, most activity returns to normal, although the mourners continue to recite the mourner's kaddish as part of synagogue services for eleven months. In Orthodox tradition, this was an obligation of the sons (not daughters) as mourners. There remain restrictions on attending festive occasions and large gatherings, especially where live music
Matzevah (Unveiling of the tombstone)
A headstone (tombstone) is known as a matzevah (monument). Although there is no Halakhic obligation to hold an unveiling ceremony – the ritual became popular in many communities toward the end of the 19th century. There are varying customs about when it should be placed on the grave. Most communities have an unveiling ceremony a year after the death. Some communities have it earlier, even a week after the burial. In Israel it is done after the shloshim (the first 30 days of mourning). There is no restriction about the timing, other than the unveiling cannot be held during certain periods such as Passover or Chol Ha'Moed.
At the end of the ceremony, a cloth or shroud covering that has been placed on the headstone is removed, customarily by close family members. Services include reading of several psalms (1, 23, 24, 103), Mourner's Kaddish (if a minyan is available), and the prayer "El Malei Rachamim". The service may include a brief eulogy for the deceased.
"Yahrzeit" redirects here. For the CSI: NY episode, see Yahrzeit (CSI: NY).
A yahrtzeit candle lit in memory of a loved one on the anniversary of the death
Yahrtzeit, יאָרצײַט, means "Time (of) Year" in Yiddish. Alternative spellings include yortsayt (using the YIVO standard Yiddish orthography), Yohr Tzeit, yahrzeit, yartzeit, and jahrzeit. The word is also used by non-Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, and refers to the anniversary of the day of death of a relative. Yahrtzeit literally means "time of [one] year".
The commemoration is known in Ladino as nahala. It is widely observed, and based on the Jewish tradition that mourners are required to commemorate the death of a relative.
Jews are required to commemorate the death of parents, siblings, spouses, or children. The main halakhic obligation is to recite the mourner's version of the Kaddish prayer at least three times, Maariv at the evening services, Shacharit at morning services, and Mincha at the afternoon services. The customs are first discussed in detail in Sefer HaMinhagim (pub. 1566) by Rabbi Isaac Tyrnau.
The Yahrtzeit falls annually on the Hebrew date of the deceased relative's death according to the Hebrew calendar. There are questions that arise as to what the date should be if this date falls on Rosh Chodesh or in a leap year of the Hebrew calendar. In particular, there are a few permutations, as follows:
This is only a general guideline, some situations have special rules.
Date of PassingSituation on the day of YartzheitCommemorated On
First day of a two-day Rosh Chodesh (i.e. last, 30th, day of the previous month)Rosh Chodesh only has one day29th (last) day of the earlier month (not a Rosh Chodesh)
Second day of a two-day Rosh Chodesh (i.e. first day of the new month)Rosh Chodesh only has one dayFirst day of the month (Rosh Chodesh)
First day of a two-day Rosh Chodesh (i.e. last, 30th, day of the previous month)Rosh Chodesh has two daysFirst day of the two day Rosh Chodesh
Second day of a two-day Rosh Chodesh (i.e. first day of the new month)Rosh Chodesh has two daysSecond day of the two day Rosh Chodesh
Adar I (leap year)Is a leap yearAdar I
Adar I (leap year)Not a leap yearAdar (there is only one Adar)
Adar (not a leap year)Is a leap yearAsk your Rabbi, opinions vary (Either Adar I, Adar II, or both)
Adar (not a leap year)Is not a leap yearAdar
Adar II (leap year)Is a leap yearAdar II
Adar II (leap year)Is not a leap yearAdar
Other days (incl. Shabbat or Yom Tov)AnyOn date of passing
The main halakhic obligation is to recite the mourner's version of the Kaddish prayer three times (evening of the previous day, morning, and afternoon), and many attend synagogue for the evening, morning, and afternoon services on this day. (During the morning prayer service the mourner's Kaddish is recited at least four times.) As a widely practiced custom, mourners also light a special candle that burns for 24 hours, called a "Yahrzeit candle".
Lighting a yahrtzeit candle in memory of a loved one is a minhag ("custom") that is deeply ingrained in Jewish life honoring the memory and souls of the deceased.
Strict Jewish law requires that one should fast on the day of a parent's Yahrzeit; although this is not required, some people do observe the custom of fasting on the day of the Yahrtzeit, or at least refraining from meat and wine. Among many Orthodox Jews it has become customary to make a siyum by completing a tractate of Talmud or a volume of the Mishnah on the day prior to the Yahrtzeit, in the honor of the deceased. A halakha requiring a siyum ("celebratory meal"), upon the completion of such a study, overrides the requirement to fast.
Many synagogues will have lights on a special memorial plaque on one of the synagogue's walls, with names of synagogue members who have died. Each of these lights will be lit for individuals on their Yahrzeit, and all the lights will be lit for a Yizkor service. Some synagogues will also turn on all the lights for memorial days, such as Yom Ha'Shoah.
Visiting the gravesite
Tombstone in the "new Jewish section" of Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, GA.
Some have a custom to visit the cemetery on fast days (Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 559:10) and before Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (581:4, 605), when possible, and for a Yahrzeit. During the first year the grave may be visited on the shloshim, and the yartzeit.
Even when visiting Jewish graves of someone that the visitor never knew, the custom is to place a small stone on the grave using the left hand. This shows that someone visited the gravesite, and is also a way of participating in the mitzvah of burial. Leaving flowers is not a traditional Jewish practice. Another reason for leaving stones is to tend the grave. In Biblical times, gravestones were not used; graves were marked with mounds of stones (a kind of cairn), so by placing (or replacing) them, one perpetuated the existence of the site.
Memorial through prayer
Main article: Kaddish
Kaddish Yatom (heb. קדיש יתום lit. "Orphan's Kaddish") or the "Mourner's" Kaddish, is said at all prayer services, as well as at funerals and memorials. Customs for reciting the Mourner's Kaddish vary markedly among various communities. In many Ashkenazi synagogues, particularly Orthodox ones, it is customary that everyone in the synagogue stands. In Sephardi synagogues, and in many non-Orthodox Ashkenazi ones, the custom is that only the mourners themselves stand and chant, while the rest of the congregation sits, chanting only responsively.
Yizkor ("remembrance") prayers are recited by those that have lost either one or both of their parents; in some modern moderate Jewish congregations, one might say yizkor for any relative or close friend whose death is mourned. There is a custom that those who do not recite the Yizkor prayers leave the synagogue until the completion of Yizkor; the symbolic reason for this is to respect the life of one's living parents. (Some rabbinic authorities regard this custom as a superstition.)
The Yizkor prayers are recited four times a year, and are intended to be recited in a synagogue with a minyan; if one is unable to be with a minyan, one can recite it without one. These four Yizkor services are held on Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, on the last day of Passover, and on Shavuot (the second day of Shavuot, in communities that observe Shavuot for two days). In the Yizkor prayers God is asked to remember and grant repose to the souls of the departed.
Yizkor is customarily not said within the first year of mourning, until the first yahrzeit has passed.
In Sephardic custom there is no Yizkor prayer, but Hashkabóth are recited on Yom Kippur for all members of the community who have died during the last year. A person called up to the Torah may also request the reader to recite Hashkabah for his deceased parents.
Main article: Av HaRachamim
Av Harachamim is a Jewish memorial prayer that was written in the late 11th Century, after the destruction of the German Jewish communities around the Rhine river by Christian Crusaders. It is recited on many Shabbatot before Musaf, and also at the end of the Yizkor service.
Communal responses to death
Most Jewish communities of size have non-profit organizations that maintain cemeteries and provide chevra kadisha services for those in need. They are often formed out of a synagogue's women's group.
Zihui Korbanot Asson (ZAKA)
Main article: ZAKA
ZAKA (heb. זק"א abbr. for Zihui Korbanot Asson lit. "Identifying Victims of Disaster" – חסד של אמת Hessed shel Emet lit. "True Kindness" – איתור חילוץ והצלה), is a community emergency response team in the State of Israel, officially recognized by the government. The organization was founded in 1989. Members of ZAKA, most of whom are Orthodox, assist ambulance crews, identify the victims of terrorism, road accidents and other disasters and, where necessary, gather body parts and spilled blood for proper burial. They also provide first aid and rescue services, and help with the search for missing persons. In the past they have responded in the aftermath of disasters around the world.
Hebrew Free Burial Association (HFBA)
Tombstone of victim of Triangle Shirtwaist Fire at the Hebrew Free Burial Association's Mount Richmond Cemetery.
Main article: Hebrew Free Burial Association
The Hebrew Free Burial Association is a non-profit agency whose mission is to ensure that all Jews receive a proper Jewish burial, regardless of their financial ability. Since 1888, more than 55,000 Jews have been buried by HFBA in their cemeteries located on Staten Island, New York, Silver Lake Cemetery and Mount Richmond Cemetery.
Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los Angeles
Formed in 1854 for the purpose of "…procuring a piece of ground suitable for the purpose of a burying ground for the deceased of their own faith, and also to appropriate a portion of their time and means to the holy cause of benevolence…," the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los Angeles established the first Jewish cemetery in Los Angeles at Lilac Terrace and Lookout Drive in Chavez Ravine (current home to Dodger Stadium). In 1968, a plaque was installed at the original site, identifying it as California Historical Landmark #822.
In 1902, because of poor environmental conditions due to the unchecked expansion of the oil industry in the area, it was proposed by Congregation B'nai B'rith to secure a new plot of land in what is now East LA, and to move the buried remains to the new site, with a continued provision for burial of indigent people. This site, the Home of Piece Memorial Park, remains operational and is the oldest Jewish cemetery in Los Angeles. The original society is now known as the "Jewish Family Service of Los Angeles".
Controversy following death
Being an organ donor is permitted, in principle, according to all Jewish denominations once death has been clearly established, provided that instructions have been left in a written living will. However, there are a number of practical difficulties for those who wish to adhere strictly to Jewish law. For example, someone who is dead by clinical standards may not yet be dead according to Jewish law. Jewish law does not permit donation of organs that are vital for survival from a donor who is in a near-dead state but who is not yet dead according to Jewish law. Orthodox and Haredi Jews may need to consult their rabbis on a case by case basis.
Jewish view of cremation
Halakha (Jewish law) forbids cremation. Burial is considered the only proper form of disposal for a Jew who has died (and is the only method used in the Tanakh), and is seen in Judaism as providing a final measure of atonement for the deceased.
From a philosophical and ritual standpoint, as with a geniza, Jews bury things as an honorable "interment," and would only burn things as a means of destruction.
See the section on Judaism on the main article, Religious views of suicide.
As Judaism considers suicide to be a form of murder, a Jew who commits suicide is denied some important after-death privileges: No eulogies should be given for the deceased, and burial in the main section of the Jewish cemetery is normally not allowed.
In recent times, most people who die by suicide have been deemed to be the unfortunate victims of depression or of a serious mental illness. Under this interpretation, their act of "self-murder" is not deemed to be a voluntary act of self-destruction, but rather the result of an involuntary condition. They have therefore been looked upon as having died of causes beyond their control.
Additionally, the Talmud (in Semakhot, one of the minor tractates) recognizes that many elements of the mourning ritual exist as much for the living survivors as for the dead, and that these elements ought to be carried out even in the case of the suicide.
Furthermore, if reasonable doubt exists that the death may not have been suicide or that the deceased might have changed her mind and repented at the last moment (e.g., if it is unknown whether the victim fell or jumped from a building, or if the person falling changed her mind mid-fall), the benefit of the doubt is given and regular burial and mourning rituals take place. Lastly, the suicide of a minor is considered a result of a lack of understanding ("da'at"), and in such a case, regular mourning is observed.
Halakha (Jewish law) forbids tattoos, and there is a persistent myth that this prevents burial in a Jewish cemetery, but this is not true. A small minority of burial societies will not accept a corpse with a tattoo, but Jewish law does not mention burial of tattooed Jews, and nearly all burial societies have no such restriction. Removing the tattoo of a deceased Jew would be completely forbidden as it would be considered damaging the body. It should be pointed out that if this were true, it would cause difficulties for the survivors of Auschwitz who had numbers tattooed on their arms. The only people that would have a difficulty would be those who put a tattoo on voluntarily as they can be considered apostates. However, it can be considered that they repented before their deaths and were unable to remove the tattoos.
Death of an apostate Jew
There is no mourning for an Apostate Jew according to Jewish law. (See that article for a discussion of precisely what actions and motivations render a Jew an "apostate.")
In the past several centuries, the custom developed among Ashkenazic Orthodox Jews (including Hassidic and Haredi Jews), that the family would "sit shiva" if and when one of their relatives would leave the fold of traditional Judaism. The definition of "leaving the fold" varies within communities; some would sit shiva if a family member married a non-Jew; others would only sit shiva if the individual actually converted to another faith, and even then, some would make a distinction between those who chose to do so of their own will, and those who were pressured into conversion. (In Sholom Aleichem's Tevye, when the title character's daughter converts to Christianity to marry a Christian, Tevye sits shiva for her and generally refers to her as "dead.") At the height of the Mitnagdim (anti-Hassidic) movement, in the early-to-mid nineteenth century, some Mitnagdim even sat shiva if a family member joined Hassidism. (It is said that when Leibel Eiger joined Hassidism, his father, Rabbi Shlomo Eiger sat shiva, but his grandfather, the famed Rabbi Akiva Eiger, did not. It is also said that Leibel Eiger came to be menachem avel [console the mourner]). By the mid-twentieth century, however, Hassidism was recognized as a valid form of Orthodox Judaism, and thus the (controversial) practice of sitting shiva for those who realign to Hassidism ceased to exist.
Today, some Orthodox Jews, particularly the more traditional ones (such as many Haredi and Hassidic communities), continue the practice of sitting shiva for a family member who has left the religious community. More liberal Jews, however, may question the practice, eschewing it as a very harsh act that could make it much more difficult for the family member to return to traditional practice if/when s/he would consider doing so.
After death in Judaism
Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
Main article: Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
The afterlife according to Judaism
Main article: Jewish eschatology
The final redemption according to Judaism
Main article: Jewish Messiah
Days of remembrance
(Day of mourning for the destruction of both the First and Second Temple in Jerusalem and other events.)
Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, Final day of Pesach, Shavuot
(the four days on which Yizkor is recited)
Tenth of Tevet
(a fast day on which it has become a custom for some to say Kaddish for those whose yahrzeits are unknown or died in the Holocaust)
(national day of remembrance in Israel (and by many Jews worldwide) for those murdered in the Holocaust as well as righteous gentiles)
(national day of remembrance to those who died in service of Israel or killed in terrorist attacks)
Main article: The Holocaust
During the Holocaust, massive crematoria were constructed and operated round-the-clock by the Nazis within their concentration and extermination camps to dispose of the bodies of thousands of Jews and others. The bodies of thousands of Jews were thus disposed of in a manner deeply offensive to Judaism. Since then, cremation has carried an extremely negative connotation for many Jews, even more so than it had previously.
14 The Holocaust
The Sad State of The Jewish Cemetery at Mazgaon, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
I shoot this by climbing the wall of Rehmatabad Shia cemetery ...and this unused Jewish cemetery on prime land has gone too seed totally..
The Common Man's Wife Bears The Burden of The Ricksha Fare Hike, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
as a victim
mix with guys
from the higher up
times a lost
garden of eden
till modern times
for respect equality
justice in a woman
hating mans world
she has waited
she has waited
too see my 7 Moharam juloos in Chennai you have to be a flickr member my pictures are restricted to public because blood and gore .. graphic nature
Dr Abbas Ali Mir Son of Late Ali Master Recites Majlis at Chota Naksha, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
158,126 items / 1,249,964 views
The Shia Chennais it is my humble view prefer Zakirs from Northern India but I found this son of Chennai soil Dr Abbas Ali Mir a powerful orator and to the point , his majlis made the human hearts cry.
I was lucky that when I came to Chennai I knew no one save Meesaq only through the internet , but than on my arrival I met a lot of Shias , and than I was introduced to Dr Abbas Ali Mir I stayed at his house savored his hospitality . he showed me parts of Shia Chennai.
He took me to Jigedevi Ag Matam and was a great guide and friend .. I owe a lot to him.
And because he is not net savvy I dont think he will read what I have written about him..
Thank you Dr Abbas Ali Mir .. Sada Khush Raho Mere Dost ..Best wishes to your Mother.
Dr Abbas Ali Mirs father the noted teacher Ali Master died on Eid e Ghadeer .
Fatiah for the poetic soul of late meena kumari, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Meena Kumari (1 August 1932 – 31 March 1972), born Mahjabeen Bano, was an Indian movie actress and poetess. She is regarded as one of the most prominent actresses to have appeared on the screens of Hindi Cinema. During a career spanning 30 years from her childhood to her death, she starred in more than ninety films, many of which have achieved classic and cult status today.
Kumari gained a reputation for playing grief-stricken and tragic roles, and her performances have been praised and reminisced throughout the years. Like one of her best-known roles, Chhoti Bahu, in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), Kumari became addicted to alcohol. Her life and prosperous career were marred by heavy drinking, troubled relationships, an ensuing deteriorating health, and her death from liver cirrhosis in 1972.
Kumari is often cited by media and literary sources as "The Tragedy Queen", both for her frequent portrayal of sorrowful and dramatic roles in her films and her real-life story.
Meena Kumari was the third daughter of Ali Baksh and Iqbal Begum; Khursheed and Madhu were her two elder sisters. At the time of her birth, her parents were unable to pay the fees of Dr. Gadre, who had delivered her, so her father left her at a Muslim orphanage, however, he picked her up after a few hours.
Her father, a Shia Muslim, was a veteran of Parsi theater, played harmonium, taught music, and wrote Urdu poetry. He played small roles in films like Id Ka Chand and composed music for films like Shahi Lutere.
Her mother was the second wife of Ali Baksh. Before meeting and then marrying Ali Baksh, she was a stage actress and dancer, under the stage name, Kamini.
When Mahjabeen was born, Ali Bakhsh aspired to get roles as an actor in Rooptara Studios. At the urging of his wife, he got Mahjabeen too into movies despite her protestations of wanting to go to school. Young Mahjabeen is said to have said, "I do not want to work in movies; I want to go to school, and learn like other children."
As Mahjabeen embarked on her acting career at the age of 7, she was renamed Baby Meena. Farzand-e-Watan or Leatherface (1939) was her first movie, which was directed for Prakash Studios by Vijay Bhatt. She became practically the sole breadwinner of her family during the 1940s. Her early adult acting, under the name Meena Kumari, was mainly in mythological movies like Veer Ghatotkach (1949), Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950), and fantasy movies like Alladin and The Wonderful Lamp (1952).
Meena Kumari gained fame with her role as a heroine in Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). This heroine always negated herself for the material and spiritual advancement of the man she loved and was even willing to annihilate herself to provide him the experience of pain so that his music would be enriched. She became the first actress to win the Filmfare Best Actress Award in 1953 for this performance.
Meena Kumari highly successfully played the roles of a suffering woman in Parineeta (1953), Daera (1953), Ek Hi Raasta (1956), Sharda (1957), and Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi (1960). Though she cultivated the image of a tragedienne, she also performed commendably in a few light-hearted movies like Azaad (1955), Miss Mary (1957), Shararat (1959), and Kohinoor (1960).
One of her best-known roles was in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), which was produced by Guru Dutt. Kumari played Chhoti Bahu, an alcoholic wife. The film was a major critical and commercial success, which was attributed by critics to Kumari's performance, which is regarded as one of the best performances of Hindi Cinema. The role was famous for its uncanny similarity to Meena Kumari's own life. At that time, she herself was on a road to gradual ruin in her own personal life. Like her character, she began to drink heavily, though she carried on. In 1962, she made history by getting all the three nominations for Filmfare Best Actress Award, for her roles in Aarti, Main Chup Rahungi, and Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. She won the award for Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. Upperstall.com wrote about her performance,
"While each of the performances are spot on, if there is one person who is the heart and soul of the film, it is Meena Kumari. Her portrayal of Chhoti Bahu is perhaps the greatest performance ever seen on the Indian Screen. The sequence where Chhoti Bahu dresses for her husband singing Piya Aiso Jiya Main is a poignant exploration of a woman's expectations and sexual desire. And later on when she has become a desperate alcoholic, you cannot help but cry with her in the sequence where she pleads with her husband to stay with her and then angrily turns on him to tell him how she has prostituted her basic values and morals to please him. However the common factors between the actress's life and Chhoti Bahu are too dramatic to be merely coincidental - The estranged marital relationship, the taking of alcohol, turning towards younger male company, the craving to be understood and loved - all elements evident in Meena Kumari's own life."
For four more years, Kumari performed successfully in Dil Ek Mandir (1963), Kaajal (1965), and Phool Aur Patthar (1966), all of which earned her Filmfare nominations, with Kaajal garnering her a fourth and last win of the Best Actress award. However, after divorcing her husband in 1964, her addiction to alcohol became stronger, and she often dulled her senses with liquor. She also relied more and more on intimate relationships with younger men like Dharmendra. Her subsequent releases, including Chandan Ka Palna and Majhli Didi did not do well.
Kumari's heavy drinking had badly damaged her liver, and in 1968 she fell seriously ill. She was taken to London and Switzerland for treatment. Back home, she started settling her debts and made peace with her estranged sister, Madhu, whom she had not spoken to for two years. Because of her heavy drinking, she increasingly lost her good looks, and when she returned, she began playing character roles in movies like Jawab (1970) and Dushmun (1972).
She developed an attachment to writer-lyricist Gulzar and acted in his directorial debut Mere Apne (1971). Kumari presented an acclaimed portrayal of an elderly woman who got caught between two street gangs of frustrated, unemployed youth and got killed, her death making the youth realise the futility of violence.
Pakeezah, starring Kumari and directed by her ex-husband Kamal Amrohi, took 14 years to reach the silver screen. First planned by Amrohi in 1958, the film went on the studio floors in 1964, but the shooting came to a standstill after their separation in March 1964, when it was more than halfway complete. In 1969, Sunil Dutt and Nargis previewed some reels of the shelved film and convinced the estranged Amrohi and Kumari to complete it. Hindustan Times described the meeting which Dutt had organised between the two:
"Not much was said, but streams of tears were shed... Amrohi greeted her with a token payment of a gold guinea and the promise that he’d make her look as beautiful as the day she had started the film."
Gravelly ill, Kumari was determined to complete the film and, well aware of the limited time left for her to live, went out of her way to complete it at the earliest. Despite her rapidly deteriorating health, she gave the finishing touches to her performance. Initially, after its release in February 1972, Pakeezah opened to a lukewarm response from the public; however, after Meena Kumari's death less than two months later, people flocked to see it, making it a major box-office success. The film has since gained a cult and classic status, and Kumari's performance as a golden-hearted Lucknow prostitute drew major praise. She posthumously received her twelfth and last Filmfare nomination.
Throughout her life, Kumari had a love-hate relationship with movies, and besides being a top-notch actress, she was a talented poetess, and recorded a disc of her Urdu poems, I write, I recite with music by Khayyam.
Three weeks after the release of Pakeezah, Meena Kumari became seriously ill, and died on 31 March 1972 of liver cirrhosis. At her death, she was in more or less the same financial circumstance as her parents at the time of her birth: It is said that when she died in a nursing home, there was no money to pay her hospital bills. She was buried at Rahematabad Qabristan located at Narialwadi, Mazgaon, Mumbai.
Relationship with Kamal Amrohi
In 1952, on the sets of one of her films, Meena Kumari fell in love with and married film director, Kamal Amrohi, who was fifteen years elder than her and was already married. She wrote about Amrohi:
"Dil saa jab saathi paya
Bechaini bhi woh saath le aaya"
(When I found someone like my heart
He also brought sorrow with him)
Soon after marriage, Kamal Amrohi and Meena Kumari produced a film called Daera (1953), which was based on their love story. They also planned another film, Pakeezah. However, it took sixteen years (1956 to 1972) before Pakeezah reached the silver screen. (The scenes in Pakeezah's popular song, Inhi logon ne, were originally filmed in black and white, and were later reshot in color.)
It is said that Amrohi did not want children with Meena Kumari because she was not a Syed. They raised Kamal Amrohi's son, Tajdaar, who was greatly attached to his chhoti ammi (younger mother).
Due to their strong personalities, however, Meena Kumari and Kamal Amrohi started to develop conflicts, both professionally and in their married life. Their conflicts led to separation in 1960, and ultimately divorce in 1964. Highly affected Meena Kumari, who, once a happy woman, became depressed and found solace in heavy drinking. They remarried, but Meena Kumari had become an alcoholic by then.
She expressed her sorrows prominently in her poetry. About Kamal Amrohi she wrote:
"Tum kya karo ge sun kar mujh se meri kahani
Bay lutf zindagi ke qissay hain pheekay pheekay"
(Why do you want to listen to my story:
Colourless tales of a joyless life)
At the time of the divorce, she wrote:
"Talaaq to day rahay ho Nazar-e-qehar ke saath
Jawani bhi meri lauta do Mehar ke saath"
(You are divorcing me with rage in your eyes
Return to me, also, my youth along with the alimony!)
Gomti Ke Kinare (1972) .... Ganga
Pakeezah (1972) .... Nargis/Sahibjaan
Dushmun (1971) .... Malti R. Din
Mere Apne (1971) .... Anandi Devi/Auaji (Aunt)
Jawab (1970) .... Vidya
Saat Phere (1970)
Abhilasha (1968) .... Mrs. Meena Singh
Baharon Ki Manzil (1968) .... Nanda S. Roy/Radha Shukla
Bahu Begum (1967) .... Zeenat Jahan Begum
Chandan Ka Palna (1967) .... Shobha Rai
Majhli Didi (1967) .... Hemangini 'Hema'
Phool Aur Patthar (1966) .... Shanti Devi
Pinjre Ke Panchhi (1966) .... Heena Sharma
Bheegi Raat (1965)
Jadui Angoothi (1965)
Kaajal (1965) .... Madhavi
Purnima (1965) .... Purnima V. Lal
Maain Bhi Ladki Hun (1964) .... Rajni
Benazir (1964) .... Benazir
Chitralekha (1964) .... Chitralekha
Gazal (1964) .... Naaz Ara Begum
Sanjh Aur Savera (1964) .... Gauri
Akeli Mat Jaiyo (1963) Seema
Dil Ek Mandir (1963) .... Sita
Kinare Kinare (1963)
Aarti (film) (1962) .... Aarti Gupta
Main Chup Rahungi (1962) .... Gayetri
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962) .... Chhoti Bahu
Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan (1961) .... Geeta, Shyam's wife
Pyaar Ka Saagar (1961) .... Radha/Rani B. Gupta
Zindagi Aur Khwab (1961) .... Shanti
Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960) .... Karuna
Ardhangini (1959) .... Chhaya
Char Dil Char Raahein (1959) .... Chavli
Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan (1959) .... Ratna
Satta Bazaar (1959) .... Jamuna
Sahara (1958) .... Leela
Yahudi (1958) .... Hannah
Miss Mary (1957) .... Miss Mary/Laxmi
Sharada (1957) .... Sharada Ram Sharan
Ek-Hi-Rasta (1956) .... Malti
Halaku (1956) .... Niloufer Nadir
Mem Sahib (1956) .... Meena
Naya Andaz (1956)
Azaad (1955) .... Shobha
Bandish (1955) .... Usha Sen
Chandni Chowk (1954) .... Zarina
Daera (1953) .... Sheetal
Dana Paani (1953)
Do Bigha Zamin (1953) .... Thakurain
Foot Path (1953) .... Mala
Naulakha Haar (1953) .... Bijma
Parineeta (1953) .... Lalita
Aladdin Aur Jadui Chirag (1952)
Baiju Bawra (1952) .... Gauri
Tamasha (1952) .... Kiran
Hanumaan Pataal Vijay (1951)
Lakshmi Narayan (1951)
Madhosh (1951) .... Soni
Anmol Ratan (1950)
Hamara Ghar (1950)
Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950)
Veer Ghatotkach (1949) .... Surekha
Bichchade Balam (1948)
Piya Ghar Aaja (1947)
Bachchon Ka Khel (1946)
Duniya Ek Sarai (1946)
Lal Haveli (1944)
Bahen (1941) (as Baby Meena) .... Bina
Nai Roshni (1941)
Ek Hi Bhool (1940)
Filmfare Best Actress Award – Won
1953 Parineeta – Lalita
1954 Baiju Bawra – Gauri
1963 Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam – Chhoti Bahu
1966 Kaajal – Madhavi
Filmfare Best Actress Award – Nominated
1956 Azaad – Shobha
1959 Sahara – Leela
1960 Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan – Ratna
1963 Aarti – Aarti Gupta
1963 Main Chup Rahungi – Gayetri
1964 Dil Ek Mandir – Sita
1967 Phool Aur Patthar – Shanti Devi
1973 Pakeezah – Nargis / Sahibjaan (posthumous nomination)
Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards
Meena Kumari has won several awards at the Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards (BFJA)
1963 Best Actress (Hindi): Aarti
1965 Best Actress (Hindi): Dil Ek Mandir
Special Award: Pakeezah
One of the first biographies of Meena Kumari was written just after her death by Vinod Mehta in the year 1972. It was simply titled Meena Kumari.
Life Is Nothing But A Journey From The Womb To The Unknown Zone, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
your ego your
loved ones a
a white winding sheet
covering your wretched
skin and bones
no you take nothing
not even your mobile
phone at the corner
of the cemetery
your wife lets out
a moan sadness
prone her king
gone leaving behind
his marital throne
now she will
live with your
as you will share
on your own
Rehmatabad Shia Iranian Cemetery Mazgaon Mumbai, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
I just shot these randomly , but sadly our cemetery does not have the neatness of the Khoja Shia cemetery Arambagh , maybe because of lack of funds the Khoja community is much financially sound and more organized than us.. this is my personal view .
Our cemetery is very small cramped up for space ,but over all it is quiet even on a burial day, but you wont find breathing space if you come on Chehlum and to some extent on Ashura.
Ashura most of the Shias go to their hometown but Chehlum 40 day of Imam Hussains Martyrdom or Arbaeen they return and the crowds are in lacs .
And I have shot the Chehlum Ashura here and once Shabarat the Shia All Souls day.
On of the graves here is of scholar Joe Ansari.. his wife used to come and recite fatiah here , he stayed at Daulat bldg Colaba I think bang opposite my primary school Private European School .. near Usha Sadan.
Adab And Tehzeeb They Bought From Lucknow Now Mixed In The Soil of Mumbai, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
kah do in hasarato.n se kahii.n aur jaa base.n
itanii jagah kahaa.N hai dil-e-daaG_daar me.n
umr-e-daraaz maa.Ng kar laaye the chaar din
do arazuu me.n kaT gaye do intazaar me.n
kitanaa hai bad_nasiib "Zafar" dafn ke liye
do gaz zamiin bhii na milii kuu-e-yaar me.n
My parents were lucky ...they blessed us as Maharashtrians .. 100%Mumbaikars
I am perhaps the only Muslim shooting Lalbaugh Chya Raja for over 20 years or more ,,thanks to Mr Sudhir Salvi head honcho of the Mandal.....
Shah-e-Mardan Sher-e-Yazdan Quwat-e-Parwardigar Lafata Ila Ali La Saif Ila Zulfiqar , originally uploaded by firoze shakir photographerno1 ....
Ek Shahenshah Ne Banake Yeh Haseen Tajmahal Ham Gareebon Ki Mohabbat Ka Udaya Hai Mazak.. , a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Fli...