Saturday, April 4, 2015
Easter[nb 1] (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Latin: Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from Aramaic: פסחא, cognate to Hebrew: פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)[nb 2] or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Christ, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance.
The week before Easter is called Holy Week, and it contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday), commemorating the Last Supper and its preceding foot washing, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In western Christianity, Eastertide, the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday. In Orthodoxy, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension.
Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts in that they do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow the only cycle of the sun; rather, its date is determined on a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified; these were worked out in practice, a process that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. It has come to be the first Sunday after the full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary in East and West. Details of this complicated computation are found below in the section Date.
Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In many languages, the words for "Easter" and "Passover" are identical or very similar. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, and include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, and decorating Easter eggs, a symbol of the empty tomb. The Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, and Easter parades. There are also various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally.
The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that usually appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; but also as Ēastru, -o; and Ēastre or Ēostre.[nb 3] The most widely accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of a goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ (Old English 'Month of Ēostre', translated in Bede's time as "Paschal month") was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month".
In Greek and Latin, the Christian celebration was and is called Πάσχα, Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח (Pesach). The word originally denoted the Jewish festival, known in English as Passover, commemorating the story of the Exodus. Already in the 50s of the 1st century, Paul, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, and it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual. In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha.
One of the earliest known depictions of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus (Rabbula Gospel illuminated manuscript, 6th century)
The New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is a foundation of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will judge the world in righteousness. God has given Christians "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Christians, through faith in the working of God are spiritually resurrected with Jesus so that they may walk in a new way of life.
Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.
One interpretation of the Gospel of John is that Jesus, as the Passover lamb, was crucified at roughly the same time as the Passover lambs were being slain in the temple, on the afternoon of Nisan 14. The scriptural instructions specify that the lamb is to be slain "between the two evenings", that is, at twilight. By the Roman period, however, the sacrifices were performed in the mid-afternoon. Josephus, Jewish War 6.10.1/423 ("They sacrifice from the ninth to the eleventh hour"). Philo, Special Laws 2.27/145 ("Many myriads of victims from noon till eventide are offered by the whole people").
This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with the chronology in the Synoptic Gospels. It assumes that text literally translated "the preparation of the passover" in John 19:14 refers to Nisan 14 (Preparation Day for the Passover) and not necessarily to Yom Shishi (Friday, Preparation Day for the Passover week Sabbath) and that the priests' desire to be ritually pure in order to "eat the passover" refers to eating the Passover lamb, not to the public offerings made during the days of Unleavened Bread.
when I take their pictures
they tell me sir add a few
words of poetry it heals
us beautifully we only
want society to let us be
beggars mortgaged to
the dead soul of humanity .
This was shot in June 2010 and its been 5 long years after I wrote these few lines , but the road leading to the Bulund Darwaza Ajmer Sharif has beggars at every step, I shot him off Moti Katla on the main road and beggar shots cant be composed or you will be obstructing the large crowds and cops could tick you off for creating nuisance ,, so I merely point and shoot with my DSLR and I was stuck to Nikon I shot the bulk of my images on D80 and when bad times hit me hard I sold most of my silver jewelry , but kept this Nikon D80.
It was in 2011 I got the Canon 70 D and have been shooting on Canon for last 4 years now , as the Canon D70 is bulky with the vertical grip I mostly use the Canon 60 D .
I am a incorrigible hardcore Canon user but I could shoot the same stuff on my mobile phone too ,,a bit uncomfortably and I am getting used to the Xiaomi .
The beggars that you see in Ajmer Sharif , where the Holy Shrine of Khwajah Garib Nawaz is situated a few miles away from Ajmer Station , are a motley crew , unusual , unique and depraved beyond redemption .. some are almost dead than alive ,,and as a person who documents beggars there is no escaping them at all.. you find them littered everywhere living in muck and dirty surroundings ,,I mean if the erstwhile Khadims and the Government wanted Ajmer Sharif could be made as pristine as the Holy Cities in Saudi Arabia and Iraq.. I have however neither seen those cities I consider India my Karbala and my Dharambhumi.
And I showcase the state of our beggars to those fast asleep who talk bullshit that in Rs 12 you can have a decent meal in India , at Ajmer too you need money fr meals for the beggars too can get free meal at restaurants that sell coupons to the rich and feed them the most undernourished food that would make a dog puke too .. and a strange God makes these people get multi rich at the expense of the beggars.
So if I do miss going to Ajmer this year for the Urus I think it will be Gods will .. maybe the beggars need a break from my prying cosmic eye .
Having shot Ajmer Urus since 2005 its indeed been a long time ,,,my legs are in bad shape the recent hairline fracture has not helped either .
.“Hurrah for revolution and more cannon-shot!
A beggar upon horseback lashes a beggar on foot,
Hurrah for revolution and cannon come again!
The beggars have changed places but the lash goes on.”
she was standing begging
outside a shop on bandra
hill road selling readymades
rs 150 for a ladies top on sale
guaranteed color wont fade
the customers her gaze tried
to evade ..instead bought the
ladies top willingly a thought
cascades no coins for this
beggar lady .standing wearily
in the shade ..hoping that a busy
god one day will come to her aid
as she watches the people busy
shopping in the arcade ..misplaced
womanhood - a mother betrayed
scattered all over the face
of earth wait for apocalypse
this earth has not been kind
to beggars as is where is
the pain the sufferings
treated as untouchables
lowliest of the low seeking
hope humanity dignity bliss
jesus the healer they miss
he would make sure that
they were never treated
like this his healing hands
profusely they would kiss
If you travel second class and if you are a photographer like me who documents beggars than you will find a lot of beggars on the train going to Ajmer Sharif for the Urus .. but beware it will be packed too and you can do nothing about it ,,the TC never comes this end to check your tickets so most of the people are ticketless ..going to Ajmer is their spiritual right and a lot of guys will be smoking hash , bullying other passengers that I fine for these youth the Ajmer trip is only a pastime and for fun.
Nobody dare argue with them or you get beaten by these ruffians and once these guys mostly from Mumai bullied a passenger without realizing he was a soldier in mufti and he called up his friends from the next compartment and when the train reached the next station they came and beat up the ruffians black and blue .
Beggars live on trains this is their workspace , and they earn handsomely as those going to Ajmer fill their beggars bowl.
But Indian Railways have no proper management for the pilgrims and are totally unprepared for the rush and they dont care about the pilgrims , be it Ajmer or any other pilgrims site .
It was worst during the Mahakumbh too the chaos the stampede and the neglect ,,I sincerely hope our erstwhile Railway Minister Mr Suresh Prabhu pays attention to this and the hijra menace on UP bound trains were the hijras extort money from passengers humiliate them and beat them too and there is a HIjra Beggar mafia working on Indian trains in collusion with railway personnel even the Railway cops are scared of the Hijras .. than sadly most of our cops are like Hijras too ..extorting money fr getting people seats and they do it openly..in Mumbai or even in Lucknow .
Stations of the Cross (or Way of the Cross; in Latin, Via Crucis) refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and also to the prayers Christians say when contemplating those images. Often a series of 14 images will be arranged in numbered order around a church nave or along a path, and the faithful travel from image to image, in order, stopping at each "station" to say the selected prayers and reflections. This will be done individually or in groups. Occasionally the faithful might say the Stations of the Cross without there being any image, such as when the Pope leads the Stations of the Cross around the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday. This practice is common in Roman Catholic, as well as in a number of Anglican and Lutheran churches.
The style and form of the stations can vary widely and often reflect the artistic sensibility and spirituality of the time, place and culture of their creation. The stations can consist of small plaques with reliefs or paintings, or of simple crosses with a numeral in the centre.
The Stations of the Cross are also called the Via Dolorosa or Way of Sorrows, or simply, The Way. In Jerusalem, the Via Dolorosa is believed to be the actual path that Jesus walked, and the stations there, the actual places the events occurred.
The tradition of moving around the Stations to commemorate the Passion of Christ began with St. Francis of Assisi and extended throughout the Roman Catholic Church in the medieval period. It is most commonly done during Lent, especially on Good Friday, but it also done on other days as well, especially Wednesdays and Fridays.
The Stations of the Cross originated in pilgrimages to Jerusalem. A desire to reproduce the holy places in other lands seems to have manifested itself at quite an early date. At the monastery of Santo Stefano at Bologna a group of connected chapels was constructed as early as the 5th century, by St. Petronius, Bishop of Bologna, which was intended to represent the more important shrines of Jerusalem, and in consequence, this monastery became familiarly known as "Santa Gerusalemme". These may perhaps be regarded as the germ from which the Stations afterwards developed, though it is tolerably certain that nothing that we have before about the 15th century can strictly be called a Way of the Cross in the modern sense. Although several travelers who visited the Holy Land during the twelfth, thirteenth, and 14th centuries (e.g. Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, Burchard of Mount Sion, James of Verona), mention a "Via Sacra", i.e., a settled route along which pilgrims were conducted, there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Way of the Cross, as we understand it. The devotion of the Via Dolorosa, for which there have been a number of variant routes in Jerusalem, was probably developed by the Franciscans after they were granted administration of the Christian holy places in Jerusalem in 1342. Today, nine of the Stations of the Cross that were established by the Franciscans are located along the Via Dolorosa as it wends its way from the northwest corner of the Temple Mount to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, within which the remaining five stations are located.
The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, and described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. In 1521 a book called Geystlich Strass was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land.
During the 15th and 16th centuries the Franciscans began to build a series of outdoor shrines in Europe to duplicate their counterparts in the Holy Land. The number of stations varied between seven and thirty; seven was common. These were usually placed, often in small buildings, along the approach to a church, as in a set of 1490 by Adam Kraft, leading to the Johanneskirche in Nuremberg. A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right, usually on attractive wooded hills. These include the Sacro Monte di Domodossola (1657) and Sacro Monte di Belmonte (1712), and form part of the Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy World Heritage Site, together with other examples on different devotional themes. In these the sculptures are often approaching life-size and very elaborate. In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. In 1731, Pope Clement XII extended to all churches the right to have the stations, provided that a Franciscan father erected them, with the consent of the local bishop. At the same time the number was fixed at fourteen. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, and in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church.
The object of the Stations is to help the faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage of prayer, through meditating upon the chief scenes of Christ's sufferings and death. It has become one of the most popular devotions for many Christians, especially among Catholics, Anglicans, and Lutherans, and "is often performed in a spirit of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during His Passion."
In his encyclical letter, Miserentissimus Redemptor, on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus. Pope John Paul II referred to Acts of Reparation as the "unceasing effort to stand beside the endless crosses on which the Son of God continues to be crucified".
The early set of seven scenes was usually numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, and 14 from the list below. The standard set from the 17th to 20th centuries has consisted of 14 pictures or sculptures depicting the following scenes:
Jesus is condemned to death
Jesus carries his cross
Jesus falls the first time
Jesus meets his mother
Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry the cross
Veronica wipes the face of Jesus
Jesus falls the second time
Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem
Jesus falls the third time
Jesus is stripped of his garments
Crucifixion: Jesus is nailed to the cross
Jesus dies on the cross
Jesus is taken down from the cross (Deposition or Lamentation)
Jesus is laid in the tomb.
Although not traditionally part of the Stations, the Resurrection of Jesus is sometimes included as a fifteenth station.
Scriptural Way of the Cross
Main article: Scriptural Way of the Cross
Out of the fourteen traditional Stations of the Cross, only eight have clear scriptural foundation. Stations 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9 are not specifically attested to in the gospels (in particular, no evidence exists of station 6 ever being known before medieval times) and Station 13 (representing Jesus's body being taken down off the cross and laid in the arms of His mother Mary) seems to embellish the gospels' record, which states that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus down from the cross and buried him. To provide a version of this devotion more closely aligned with the biblical accounts, Pope John Paul II introduced a new form of devotion, called the Scriptural Way of the Cross on Good Friday 1991. He celebrated that form many times but not exclusively at the Colosseum in Rome. In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI approved this set of stations for meditation and public celebration: They follow this sequence:
Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane,
Jesus is betrayed by Judas and arrested,
Jesus is condemned by the Sanhedrin,
Jesus is denied by Peter,
Jesus is judged by Pilate,
Jesus is scourged and crowned with thorns,
Jesus takes up his cross,
Jesus is helped by Simon to carry his cross,
Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem,
Jesus is crucified,
Jesus promises his kingdom to the repentant thief,
Jesus entrusts Mary and John to each other,
Jesus dies on the cross,
Jesus is laid in the tomb
New Way of the Cross
In the Philippines, a third version of Stations of the Cross are used:
The Last Supper
The Agony in Gethsemani
Jesus before the Sanhedrin
The Scourging and Crowning with thorns
Jesus receives the Cross
Jesus falls under the weight of the Cross
Simon of Cyrene carries the Cross of Jesus
Jesus meets the pious women of Jerusalem
Jesus nailed to the cross
The Repentant Thief
Mary and John at the foot of the cross
Jesus dies on the cross
Jesus is laid in the tomb
Jesus rises from death
he devotion may be conducted personally by the faithful, making their way from one station to another and saying the prayers, or by having an officiating celebrant move from cross to cross while the faithful make the responses. The stations themselves must consist of, at the very least, fourteen wooden crosses, pictures alone do not suffice, and they must be blessed by someone with the authority to erect stations.[dubious – discuss]
In the Roman Catholic Church, Pope John Paul II led an annual public prayer of the Stations of the Cross at the Roman Colosseum on Good Friday. Originally, the Pope himself carried the cross from station to station, but in his last years when age and infirmity limited his strength, John Paul presided over the celebration from a stage on the Palatine Hill, while others carried the cross. Just days prior to his death in 2005, Pope John Paul II observed the Stations of the Cross from his private chapel. Each year a different person is invited to write the meditation texts for the Stations. Past composers of the Papal Stations include several non-Catholics. The Pope himself wrote the texts for the Great Jubilee in 2000 and used the traditional Stations.
The celebration of the Stations of the Cross is especially common on the Fridays of Lent, especially Good Friday. Community celebrations are usually accompanied by various songs and prayers. Particularly common as musical accompaniment is the Stabat Mater. At the end of each station the Adoramus Te is sometimes sung. The Alleluia is also sung, except during Lent.
Structurally, Mel Gibson's 2004 film, The Passion of the Christ, follows the Stations of the Cross. The fourteenth and last station, the Burial, is not prominently depicted (compared to the other thirteen) but it is implied since the last shot before credit titles is Jesus resurrected and about to leave the tomb.
Place of Christ's resurrection
Some modern liturgists say the traditional Stations of the Cross are incomplete without a final scene depicting the empty tomb and/or the resurrection of Jesus, because Jesus' rising from the dead was an integral part of his salvific work on Earth. Advocates of the traditional form of the Stations ending with the body of Jesus being placed in the tomb say the Stations are intended as a meditation on the atoning death of Jesus, and not as a complete picture of his life, death, and resurrection.
The Stations of the Resurrection (also known by the Latin name of Via Lucis) are used in some churches at Eastertide to meditate on the Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus Christ.
Ukrainian Byzantine Catholic Church
As part of a process of de-Latinization, the Ukrainian Byzantine Catholic Church eliminated the devotion of the Stations of the Cross. In response to this, a schismatic group called the Society of Saint Josaphat (SSJK) has formed with a seminary of its own in Lviv with thirty students at present.
Franz Liszt wrote a Via Crucis for choir, soloists and piano or organ or harmonium in 1879. In 1931, French organist Marcel Dupré improvised and transcribed musical meditations based on fourteen poems by Paul Claudel, one for each station. Peter Maxwell Davies's Vesalii Icones (1969), for male dancer, solo cello and instrumental ensemble, brings together the Stations of the Cross and a series of drawings from the anatomical treatise De humani corporis fabrica (1543) by the Belgian physician Andreas van Wesel (Vesalius). In Davies's sequence, the final 'station' represents the Resurrection, but of Antichrist, the composer's moral point being the need to distinguish what is false from what is real. David Bowie regarded his 1976 song, "Station to Station" as "very much concerned with the stations of the cross". Michael Valenti (known predominantly as a Broadway composer) wrote, with librettist Diane Seymour, an oratorio depicting the fourteen Stations of the Cross entitled "The Way". It was premiered in 1991. Stefano Vagnini's 2002 modular oratorio, Via Crucis, composition for organ, computer, choir, string orchestra and brass quartet, depicts the fourteen Stations of the Cross.
As the Stations of the Cross are prayed during the season of Lent in Catholic churches, each station is traditionally followed by a verse of the Stabat Mater, composed in the 13th century by Franciscan Jacopane da Todi.
This was shot in Ajmer 2012 and the bulk of my images shot during the Ajmer Urus documented the beggars the hijras and the rafaees and the malangs ,,
Ever since photography was banned in the Dargah premises , I only bought my camera in to shoot the Chatti celebrations of my Host Peerab Fakhru Miya Hujra No 6 . and that is all I shot in the Dargah or the Chatti Celebrations on his terrace .
I would wander the back lanes of Ajmer seeking out beggars and strangely it was the beggars who sought me out ,, and this old man blind in both eyes tended by his son lying on the road seeking redemption...
And you cannot escape beggars in Ajmer as the Keeper of Ajmer is aptly known as Khwajah Gharib Nawaz one who bestows his goodness godliness on the unfortunate .
Beggars with no place to stay , who sleep on the roads in all seasons and it is worst during the heavy rains , the gutters choked up and the streets till gates of Bulund Darwaz fully flooded .. you have to wade in this mucky dirty water ,,
As I have limited time I have to get back to Mumbai and my work I leave the day after Chatti , sometimes I climb up the mountains to reach Taragadh barefeet or sometimes I go to Pushkar to meet my friends Niru Bullet and Raj Tilak .
There are also a lot of beggars where the hijras stay at Moti Katla , and the hijra goddesses feed them clothe them and are over generous every Hijra household has a langar community meals and the Niyaz distributed to all who come ..and the Niyaz is a tribute to Kwajah Garib Nawaz.. Harzat Moinuddin Chishti..
For those who need change loose coins to pay the beggars there is the easy method , you buy shells for Rs 100 and a shell has a denomination you give this to the beggar he later converts it into cash after some money as service charge is collected by the coin changer ,,
And Ajmer Sharif the Holy City never sleeps during the Urus , the smoke of the chillum hits the breeze and enters your nostrils as you move towards Char Yar or Jalali Chowk ,,In the ancient Char Yar Masjid the Dam Madar Malangs have their Asthana with Masoom Ali Bawa the head of the Aqsan Mlangs presiding over his devotees .. followers of Zinda Shah Madar , next to him is Rafi Ali Bawa ... this is the place you will find me most of the time ..
This time things are not OK my end and I have a feeling I wont be able to go to Ajmer Sharif ,,and I take things as they come ,,and I have no regrets I have seen shot Ajmer Sharif since 2005 .
And people always have this strange justification among Indians that if a photographer shoots beggars he is making money selling their pictures and I feel sorry for their ignorant mindset .. shooting beggars in my case is a catharsis , it makes me wordily voluble I can talk on beggars , talk of beggars and end up poeticizing beggars mostly Muslim beggars ..there are people who come to Ajmer become beggars as there is a lot of money , couples beg on the road saying they have been robbed and need money to go back home ,, and again you will find the same couple begging on the way to Taragadh.. on the 4 th day too..
And people give money to beggars , feed them and give money for their medicines give them clothes and Ajmer adds to the compassion and humanizes even hearts made of miserly material.
And I am a beggar poet , I get money too walking barefeet , those who dont know me think I am an ascetic despite the camera round my neck, they kiss my hands rings ask me to pray for them through Khwajah Garib Nawaz and the money I earn as a beggar I give to the less fortunate ..it was never my money ,,,so going to Ajmer is not just a pilgrimage to pray for my friends , it is also a introspection a journey into my self ,,
Miracles happen in Ajmer , every minute every second , a lot of people got what they asked and some got what they had forgotten to ask.. and the one Mantra at Ajmer is foolproof guaranteed .. Yeh Toh Khwajah Ka Karam Hai.. it is his Bounty and Benevolence ,