Monday, August 12, 2013
A hookah' (hukkā or huqqah),('هوكة) , also known as a waterpipe, narghile, arghila, or qalyān, or Shisha (which refers specifically to Egyptian hookahs) is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin (often glass-based) before inhalation. Depending on the placement of the coal above the shisha, a hookah can be used to produce smoke by burning the shisha or used to create water vapor by melting it at a lower temperature. When a waterpipe is used to produce smoke (as is common in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf), it is usually referred to as a hookah, which means "jar" in Arabic. When the same device is used to vaporize shisha (as is common in India and the Levant), it is usually referred to as a nargile, which means "gourd" in Sanskrit. The vapor from a nargile looks similar enough to the smoke from a hookah as to cause both users and medical professionals to often confuse the two. The origin of the waterpipe is around the area which includes India, and Persia, or at a transition point between the two. The word hookah is a derivative of "huqqa", which is what the Arabs called it. According to author Cyril Elgood (pp. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, it was Abul-Fath Gilani (d. 1588), a Persian physician at the Indian court of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who "first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah." Nevertheless, a quatrain of Ahli Shirazi (d. 1535) refers to the use of the ḡalyān in Safavid Iran. (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15). Smoking the hookah has gained popularity outside of its native region, in India, Pakistan and the Middle East, and is gaining popularity in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Tanzania and South Africa.
Narjilah or nargileh (Arabic: نارجيلة but sometimes pronounced Argileh or Argilee) is the name most commonly used in Syria, Armenia, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine. Nargile derives from the Persian word nārghile, meaning coconut, which in turn is from the Sanskrit word nārikela (नारिकेल), suggesting that early hookahs were hewn from coconut shells. In Albania, the hookah is called "lula" or "lulava".
In Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, na[r]gile (на[р]гиле; from Persian nargile) is used to refer to the pipe. Šiša (шиша) refers to the tobacco that is smoked in it. The pipes there often have one or two mouth pieces. The flavored tobacco, created by marinating cuts of tobacco in a multitude of flavored molasses, is placed above the water and covered by pierced foil with hot coals placed on top, and the smoke is drawn through cold water to cool and filter it.
"Narguile", is the common word in Spain used to refer to the pipe, although "cachimba" is also used, along with "shisha" by Moroccan immigrants in Spain.
Sheesha (شيشة), from the Persian word shīshe (شیشه), meaning glass, is the common term for the hookah in Egypt, Sudan and countries of the Arab Peninsula (including Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Yemen and Saudi Arabia), and in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Somalia.
In Iran, hookah is called "Qalyān" (Persian:Qalyān). Persian qalyan is included in the earliest European compendium on tobacco, the tobacolgia written by Johan Neander and published in Dutch in 1622. It seems that over time water pipes acquired an Iranian connotation as in eighteenth-century Egypt the most fashionable pipes were called Karim Khan after the Iranian ruler of the day. This is also the name used in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus.
In Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, a hookah is called chillim.
In India and Pakistan the name most similar to the English hookah is used: huqqa (हुक़्क़ा /حقّہ).
In Maldives, hookah is called "Gudugudaa".
In Philippines, hookah is called "Hitboo" and normally used in smoking flavored marijuana. The hookah pipe is also known as the "Marra pipe" in the UK, especially in the North East, where it is used for recreational purposes.
The widespread use of the Indian word "hookah" in the English language is a result of the British Raj, the British dominion of India (1858–1947), when large numbers of expatriate Britons first sampled the water pipe. William Hickey, shortly after arriving in Kolkata, India, in 1775, wrote in his Memoirs:
The most highly-dressed and splendid hookah was prepared for me. I tried it, but did not like it. As after several trials I still found it disagreeable, I with much gravity requested to know whether it was indispensably necessary that I should become a smoker, which was answered with equal gravity, "Undoubtedly it is, for you might as well be out of the world as out of the fashion. Here everybody uses a hookah, and it is impossible to get on without ...[I] have frequently heard men declare they would much rather be deprived of their dinner than their hookah.
According to Cyril Elgood (PP.41, 110) in India the physician Irfan Shaikh, at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I (1542 - 1605 AD) invented the idea. However, a quatrain of Ahlī Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah Ṭahmāsp I. It seems, therefore, that Abu’l-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, into India.
Following the European introduction of tobacco to Persia and India, Hakim Abu’l-Fath Gilani, who came from Gilan, a province in the north of Iran, migrated to Hamarastan. He later became a physician in the Mughal court and raised health concerns after smoking tobacco became popular among Indian noblemen. He subsequently envisaged a system which allowed smoke to be passed through water in order to be 'purified'. Gilani introduced the ḡalyān after Asad Beg, the ambassador of Bijapur, encouraged Akbar I to take up smoking. Following popularity among noblemen, this new device for smoking soon became a status symbol for the Indian aristocracy and gentry.
In the Middle East and Arab world, people smoke waterpipe as part of their culture and traditions. Social smoking is done with a single or double hose hookah, and sometimes even triple or quadruple hose hookahs in the forms of parties or small get-togethers are used. When the smoker is finished, either the hose is placed back on the table signifying that it is available, or it is handed from one user to the next, folded back on itself so that the mouthpiece is not pointing at the recipient. Local names of waterpipe in the middle east are, ghalyan or ḡalyān, shisha, argila, nargile, nafas, ḥoqqa, čelam/čelīm)
Most cafés in the Middle East offer shishas. Cafés are widespread and are amongst the chief social gathering places in the Arab world (akin to public houses in Britain). Some expatriate residents arriving in the Middle East adopt shisha cafés to make up for the lack of pubs in the region, especially where prohibition is in place.
Iran[edit source | editbeta]
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar smoking qalyan
Iranian woman with hookah (qalyan), 1900, Iran
The exact date of the first use of ḡalyān in Persia is not known. According to Cyril Elgood (pp. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, it was Abul-Fatḥ Gilani (d. 1588), a Persian physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I, who "first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah." However, a quatrain of Ahli Shirazi (d. 1535) refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of Tahmasp I (1524–76). It seems, therefore, that Abul-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, to India.
Although the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I strongly condemned tobacco use, towards the end of his reign smoking ḡalyān and čopoq (q.v.) had become common on every level of the society, women included. In schools, both teachers and students had ḡalyāns while lessons continued (Falsafī, II, pp. 278–80). Shah Safi of Persia (r. 1629-42) declared a complete ban on tobacco, but the income received from its use persuaded him to soon revoke the ban. The use of ḡalyāns became so widespread that a group of poor people became professional tinkers of crystal water pipes. During the time of Abbas II of Persia (r. 1642-1666), use of the water pipe had become a national addiction (Chardin, tr., II, p. 899). The shah (king) had his own private ḡalyān servants. Evidently the position of water pipe tender (ḡalyāndār) dates from this time. Also at this time, reservoirs were made of glass, pottery, or a type of gourd. Because of the unsatisfactory quality of indigenous glass, glass reservoirs were sometimes imported from Venice (Chardin, tr., II, p. 892). In the time of Suleiman I of Persia (r. 1694-1722), ḡalyāns became more elaborately embellished as their use increased. The wealthy owned gold and silver pipes. The masses spent more on ḡalyāns than they did on the necessities of life (Tavernier apud Semsār, 1963, p. 16).
An emissary of Sultan Husayn (r.1722-32) to the court of Louis XV of France, on his way to the royal audience at Versailles, had in his retinue an officer holding his ḡalyān, which he used while his carriage was in motion (Herbette, tr. p. 7; Kasrawī, pp. 211–12; Semsār, 1963, pp. 18–19). We have no record indicating the use of ḡalyān at the court of Nader Shah, although its use seems to have continued uninterrupted. There are portraits of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty of Iran and Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar which depict them smoking the ḡalyān. Iranians had a special tobacco called Khansar (خانسار, presumably name of the origin city, Khvansar). The charcoals would be put on the Khansar without foil. Khansar has less smoke than the normal tobacco.
Saudi Arabia[edit source | editbeta]
Saudi Arabia is in the process of implementing general smoking bans in public places and government offices. This includes shishas. Additionally, the city of Riyadh has banned shisha cafes within city limits.
India[edit source | editbeta]
The intricate work on a Malabar Hookah
The concept of hookah is thought to have originated In India, once the province of the wealthy, it was tremendously popular especially during Mughal rule. The hookah has since become less popular; however, it is once again garnering the attention of the masses, and cafés and restaurants that offer it as a consumable are popular. The use of hookahs from ancient times in India was not only a custom, but a matter of prestige. Rich and landed classes would smoke hookahs.
Tobacco is smoked in hookahs in many villages as per traditional customs. Smoking tobacco-molasses is now becoming popular amongst the youth in India. There are several chain clubs, bars and coffee shops in India offering a wider variety of mu‘assels, including non-tobacco versions. Hookah was recently banned in Bangalore. However, it can be bought or rented for personal usage or organized parties.
Koyilandy, a small fishing town on the west coast of India, once made and exported hookahs extensively. These are known as Malabar Hookhas or Koyilandy Hookahs. Today these intricate hookahs are difficult to find outside of Koyilandy and are becoming difficult even to find in Koyilandy itself.
As hookah makes resurgence in India, there have been numerous raids and bans recently on hookah smoking, especially in Gujarat.
Nepal[edit source | editbeta]
A hookah at a restaurant in Nepal
Hookahs (हुक़्क़ा), especially wooden ones, are popular in Nepal. Use of hookahs is considered to symbolize elite family throughout history. These days hookahs are also getting popular among younger people and tourists. The main tourists places like Kathmandu, Pokhara and Dharan are famous for Hookah Bars. You can smoke hookahs at the rate of 175 Rs Minimum 
Bangladesh[edit source | editbeta]
The hookah has been a traditional smoking instrument in Bangladesh, as it has been in India. However, flavored shisha was introduced in the early 2000s. Hookah lounges spread quite quickly between 2008–2011 and became very popular among young people as well as middle-aged people as a relaxation method. There have been allegations of a government crack-down on hookah bars to prevent illicit drug usage.
Dargah of Hazrat Waris Ali Shah, Dewa Sharif, Barabanki, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
Waris Ali Shah (Urdu: حاجی وارث علی شاہ, Hindi: हाजी वारिस अली शाह) or Sarkar Waris Pak (Urdu: سرکار وارث پاک, Hindi: सरकार वारिस पाक) was a Sufi saint from Dewa, Barabanki, India, who was the successor to the Qadriyya -Razzakiyya Silsila. He was born in the 26th generation of Hazrat Imam Hussain. The date of his birth is disputed, varying from 1233 A.H. to 1238 A.H. In Maarif Warisya, the date of his birth is written as 1234 A.H. corresponding to 1809 of the Christian era. His father, Syed Qurban Ali Shah, belonged to a landlord class and completed his education in Baghdad.
Sarkar Waris Pak accepted millions of people belonging to all faiths into the Warsi Silsila. During that period, Firangi Mahal was the famous religious centre for North Indian Muslims, and they too were "Qadiri people" and respected Waris Pak. Religious Scholars of Firangi Mahal regarded him as a "Kamilieen".
Some Hindus[who?] held him in high esteem and regarded him as a perfect Sufi and a follower of Vedant. To Hindus he said: "Believe Brahma. Do not worship idols and be honest".[this quote needs a citation] Thousands of Hindus, including sadhus and fakirs of different Panthas paid homage to him and entered his order. He allegedly told them: "You and I are the same".[this quote needs a citation] He did not ask non-Muslims to abandon their religion. On the contrary, he advised them to follow it with greater zeal and sincerity.
Shah was popular with English-educated youth and English-speaking men flocked to him and sat at his feet. He was the first Sufi Darvesh to visit Europe and to have attract English-speaking followers. A Spanish nobleman, Count Galaraza, came from Spain to visit and interview him at Dewa.
Death[edit source | editbeta]
Waris Ali Shah died on 7 April 1905 after a brief illness. He was buried at the spot where he died, and this place is marked by a monument erected in his memory by followers.
His mausoleum represents communal amity and was constructed on a pattern blending the Hindu-Iranian styles of architecture. The tomb, the shrines and the latticed outer apartment girdling the inner shrine for Parikrama (Tawaf) are indicative of the Hindu style of architecture while the towers and minarets present the Persian architecture.
His disciples[edit source | editbeta]
He had many prominent followers from several faiths.
Meri tasavir lekar kya karoge tum meri tasavir lekar, a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Flickr.
Tumhaare saamane jab ham no honge
Ye gam tasavir se to kam na honge
Khayaalon mein basa lo meri suurat
Meri tasavir ki hai kya zaruurat
lekin kuch log
raste pe as
par rote hain
libas . waqt
aise hote hain
earlier in my dads
time beggars were
timid scared begged
with decorum polite
now they gherao you
demand their right
in total white
you have to pay
them or their
kids will bite
pick up a fight
create a scene
so you better
pay ,, hasten
your flight ,,,
from the burkha
crusaders of bandra
station road .. to
this beggar poets
delight ,, who caught
this sight ,..ocular
vision ..from a
in ambient light
in my backyard
a graveyard grows
dead chicken dead
fish dead meat
are buried here
a gutter overflows
for the morning
prayers of the dead
a congregation of
goats dogs piddling
their woes cats
wary of rats ..watch
the dead in rows
and furrows ,,,
all over blows
to open their
a picture shot
by fucked firoze
of deathly despair
his grand children
aged 5 and 2 learnt
this monumental grave
upclose ..which i am
sure you all know
marziya nerjis youngest
on the cosmic
bowl of earth
a skull cap
to a god
just kind fair
call the loud
he touches his
here there ..hope
na kisi se shikwa
na kisi se bair
allah ho akbar
Shah-e-Mardan Sher-e-Yazdan Quwat-e-Parwardigar Lafata Ila Ali La Saif Ila Zulfiqar , originally uploaded by firoze shakir photographerno1 ....
Ek Shahenshah Ne Banake Yeh Haseen Tajmahal Ham Gareebon Ki Mohabbat Ka Udaya Hai Mazak.. , a photo by firoze shakir photographerno1 on Fli...